how big do stone centipedes get

Instead, its eyes have a single ocellus or a group of ocelli. In this taxon, the number of segments ranges from 27 to 191, but is never an even number.[29]. Subscribe. The really big ones are mostly tropical, but sizeable ones can even eke out a living in deserts. There will be various kinds of food which can be found around the house including the foods for the centipedes. About the Centipedes. Scolopendrids, as well as the … The Stone Centipede uses his antennas to seek out their prey and then they capture it and paralyze it with their venomous claws called maxillipeds. Centipede bites are typically compared to that of a wasp sting. Two families are included, the Henicopidae and Lithobiidae. The more derived groups bear a plurality of spiracular openings on their sides, and are termed the Pleurostigmomorpha. [23], Some species of centipedes can be hazardous to humans because of their bite. In one clade, this spermatophore is deposited in a web, and the male undertakes a courtship dance to encourage the female to engulf his sperm. Some species of Scolopendromorpha are matriphagic, meaning the offspring eat their mother. Cavernicolous (cave-dwelling) and subterranean species may lack pigmentation, and many tropical scolopendromorphs have bright aposematic colors. https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/612495/view/stone-centipede The Craterostigmomorpha only have one phase of anamorphosis, with embryos having 12 pairs, and moultees 15. [19], As a food item, certain large-sized centipedes are consumed in China, usually skewered and grilled or deep fried. The female stays with the eggs, guarding and cleaning them to protect them from fungi. Centipedes and spiders may frequently prey on one another. Introduction: There are over 1,500 described species of stone centipedes that occur worldwide. Introduction: There are over 1,500 described species of stone centipedes that occur worldwide. For example, it can take 3 years for S. coleoptrata to achieve adulthood, whereas under the right conditions, lithobiomorph species may reach a reproductive period in 1 year. The embryonic cuticle on second maxilliped has an. They rarely get more than an inch long. It also has relatively short antennae and legs compared to the Scutigeromorpha. Do away with the spaces around the windows and doors. [6], Many species of centipedes lack eyes, but some possess a variable number of ocelli, which are sometimes clustered together to form true compound eyes. Desert centipedes are currently doing fine in the wild and have no special conservation status. Recent phylogenetic analyses using combined molecular and morphological characters supports the previous phylogeny. Centipedes always have an odd number of pairs of legs. Stone Centipedes now available at around .75 to 1 inch. Every leg-bearing segment of this organism has a separate tergite, these alternating in length apart from a pair of long tergites on each of segments 7 and 8. The biggest one of the lot is Scolopendra gigantea, the Amazonian Giant Centipede, which can get over a foot (30 centimetres) long, while others can be much smaller. [6], Forcipules are a unique feature found only in centipedes and in no other arthropods. The geophilomorph centipedes have variable segment numbers within species, yet as with all centipedes, they always have an odd number of pairs of legs. Scolopendra gigantea, also known as the Amazonian giant centipede, is the largest existing species of centipede in the world, reaching over 30 cm (12 in) in length. They can range in length from 1” to 6” and can run very rapidly. The only 2 known amphibious centipedes, Scolopendra cataracta and Scolopendra paradoxa belong to this order.[14][15][33][34]. Lithobius sp. Kill Them . They are slender insects with what appears to be hundreds of long, thin, legs bursting from all around their bodies. House centipedes find their way to your house through cracks in the walls or baseboards, as well as holes in window screens. Similarly, lithobiomorph centipedes secrete a sticky substance from glands in the rear-most two pairs of legs.[17]. What centipedes actually eat is not well known because of their cryptic lifestyles and thorough mastication of food. The Chilopoda are then split into two clades: the Notostigmophora including the Scutigeromorpha and the Pleurostigmophora including the other four orders. The final segment bears a telson and includes the openings of the reproductive organs. Geophilomorph centipedes can secrete sticky substances that generate toxic hydrogen cyanide and benzoic acid from microscopic glands on their undersides. Unusual sense organs found in some groups are the organs of Tömösváry. Their low diversity and intermediate position between the primitive anamorphic centipedes and the derived Epimorpha has led to them being likened to the platypus. This clade contains the longest centipedes; the maximum number of thoracic segments may also vary intraspecifically, often on a geographical basis; in most cases, females bear more legs than males. Geophilomorphs lose water less rapidly than lithobiomorphs, though they have a greater surface area to volume ratio. Females of the Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha show far more parental care. Discover more. [4]:354–356, Centipede defences include their speed and venomous forcipules, as well as the secretion of defensive chemicals. Furthermore, centipedes are beneficial Chilopods since they are predaceous on many different arthropods, including insects and spiders. The class is further broken down into four orders identified as Scutigeromorpha, Scolopendromorpha, Lithobiomorpha and Geophilomorpha, each differed by varying leg segments and total number of legs. [24], Even nonvenomous centipedes are considered frightening by some humans due to their dozens of legs moving at the same time and their tendency to dart swiftly out of the darkness towards one's feet. Some homeowners tolerate centipedes because they devour other insects, but crushing a centipede can cause an unsightly stain. They’re attracted to moist, damp areas like basements. Centipedes use maxillipeds, a modified pair of front legs that curve around the head, as fangs to deliver the venom to captured prey. Stone centipedes can be found in a wide variety of environments. House centipedes are active hunters, since they dont build webs or traps. So, how can you get rid of centipedes with natural, simple, and effective methods so you won’t see them and their many freaky legs ever again?. Said to have medicinal properties and to be reinvigorating,[22] the liquor with the centipede submerged in it is consumed as a special drink. There are three families: Pselliodidae, Scutigeridae and Scutigerinidae. Their size can range from a few millimetres in the smaller lithobiomorphs and geophilomorphs to about 30 cm in the largest scolopendromorphs. Control: Centipedes rarely venture indoors, yet when they are found inside the home it is often associated with moisture, such as around a leaky pipe, toilet, or damp crawlspace/basement. The digestive tract forms a simple tube, with digestive glands attached to the mouthparts. Within these habitats, centipedes require a moist microhabitat because they lack the waxy cuticle of insects and arachnids, therefore causing them to rapidly lose water. - Follow me Foodie, 10.1580/1080-6032(2001)012[0093:CE]2.0.CO;2, "Evolutionary developmental biology does not offer a significant challenge to the neo-Darwinian paradigm", Evolution of blindness in scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda:Scolopendromorpha): insight from an expanded sampling ofmolecular data, "Conflict between datasets and phylogeny of centipedes: an analysis based on seven genes and morphology", "A taxonomic review of the centipede genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) in mainland Southeast Asia, with description of a new species from Laos", Chilobase, a web resource for Chilopoda taxonomy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Centipede&oldid=993047537, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The upper three groups form the paraphyletic. [12], Scolopendromorphs, given their size, are able to feed on vertebrates, in addition to invertebrates. Go back to start of main content Go back to top of page . Water regulation is an important aspect of centipede ecology, since they lose water rapidly in dry conditions and are found in moist microhabitats. If disturbed, the female either abandons the eggs or eats them; abandoned eggs tend to fall prey to fungi rapidly. Thread starter john milstead; Start date Apr 5, 2019; Apr 5, 2019 #1 john milstead Arachnopeon. The venomous bite of larger centipedes can induce anaphylactic shock in such people. How Do Centipedes Get in the House? Centipedes, especially the house centipede, frequently enter homes and become a nuisance problem. All centipedes are potential intraguild predators. Lastly, a professional perimeter treatment will reduce centipede numbers and help prevent them from gaining access to the home. Read More; Inspire your inbox – Sign up for daily fun facts about this day in history, updates, and special offers. Other species of centipedes are capable of causing a painful and sometimes deadly “bite.” Therefore, it is extremely important to know how centipedes can gain access into homes. Try to get rid of the household pests that they prey on. They enter your home because it’s easy. While centipedes and millipedes can often be confused with one another, centipedes differ by only having one pair of legs on most of their body segments. Sprinkle this powder at all entryway doors (like a line). Outdoors, potential harborages should be removed, such as boards on the ground, grass clippings, discarded boxes, etc. Cavernicolous and subterranean species may lack pigmentation, and many tropical scolopendromorphs have bright … There are both the ordinary house centipedes and some quite dangerous monsters, such as an almost a foot-long giant scolopendra among them. They are bluish gray or grayish yellow in color with banded black and white legs. Habits: All centipedes have venom glands and the means to inject their venom. [4] They are found in an array of terrestrial habitats from tropical rainforests to deserts. Getting rid of centipedes is a big game of hide and seek. This custom is allegedly part of the traditional Chinese medicine. Despite the name, centipedes can have a varying number of legs, ranging from 30 to 354. Centipedes live in many different habitat types—forest, savannah, prairie, and desert, to name a few. The clade Epimorpha, consisting of the orders Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha, exhibits epimorphy: all pairs of legs are developed in the embryonic stages, and offspring do not develop more legs between moults. It is very likely you have run across them before and been frightened by this pest. [1][2][3] Therefore, no centipede has exactly 100 legs. Sulfur to Get Rid Of Centipedes. Centipedes can be found in a wide variety of environments. Multicolored Asian Ladybird Beetle/Ladybug. Stone Centipede buy live pet centipede. Even if your home attracts centipedes, they can’t get in if they… can’t get in. Centipedes that live outdoors have much shorter legs and do not move as quickly as house centipedes. The presence of these pores on the Devonian Devonobius permits its inclusion in this clade, allowing its divergence to be dated to 375 (or more) million years ago. They are eyeless and blind, and bear spiracles on all leg-bearing segments—in contrast to other groups, which usually bear them only on their 3rd, 5th, 8th, 10th, 12th, and 14th segments—a "mid-body break", accompanied by a change in tagmatic shape, occurring roughly at the interchange from odd to even segments. This centipede species can grow up to 30 centimeters, and they are really big. [6], As predators, centipedes mainly use their antennae to seek out their prey. Scutigerinidae, composed of three species in the genus Scutigerina, is restricted to southern Africa and Madagascar. [27] They belong to the subphylum Myriapoda which includes Diplopoda, Symphyla, and Pauropoda. They also bear long and multi-segmented antennae. Centipedes can be found in a wide variety of environments. Little is known about scutigeromorph or craterostigmomorph diets. Its spiracles are paired and can be found laterally. Some even have several unpaired spiracles that can be found along the mid-dorsal line and closer to their posterior section of tergites. Today, centipedes are abundant and exist in many harsh habitats. They can range in length from 1” to 6” and can run very rapidly. Being among the earliest terrestrial animals, centipedes were one of the first to fill a fundamental niche as ground level generalist predators in detrital food webs. Centipedes have a rounded or flattened head, bearing a pair of antennae at the forward margin. They don't leave much of a trail, so you often have to see them to get rid of them. In other cases, the males just leave them for the females to find. [25] A 19th-century Tibetan poet warned his fellow Buddhists, "if you enjoy frightening others, you will be reborn as a centipede."[26]. Geophilomorphs probably cannot subdue earthworms larger than themselves, so smaller earthworms may be a substantial proportion of their diet. The order comprises the five families Cryptopidae, Scolopendridae, Mimopidae, Scolopocryptopidae, and Plutoniumidae. Centipedes have from 15 to about 177 body segments. The eggs, 15 to 60 in number, are laid in a nest in the soil or in rotten wood. What Do Centipedes Look Like, Where Do They Live, and How Many Legs Have They Got? Pselliodidae includes just a few species in the genus Sphendononema (=Pselliodes), occurring in the Neotropics and tropical Africa. The centipedes use their mandibles to capture prey, and those mandibles deliver venom along with great pain. Okay, prehistoric insects weren’t this big … but they were bigger than our insects today. The number of eggs laid ranges from about 10 to 50. They normally have a drab coloration combining shades of brown and red. These conditions should be corrected as well as making sure there is proper ventilation in the basement or crawlspace. Centipede reproduction does not involve copulation. Centipedes aren’t eating your wood or carrying a fatal disease. These orders are united into the clade Chilopoda by the following synapomorphies:[28]. Enter your email. Cook’s Pest Control offers expert treatment for the control of centipedes and our pest management professionals are thoroughly trained to address your centipede problems. Centipedes are long, many-segmented invertebrates that live in the soil, under rocks, in compost heaps, or under the bark of trees, emerging at night to catch their prey. The forcipules are modifications of the first pair of legs, forming a pincer-like appendage always found just behind the head. They are probably used for sensing vibrations, and may even provide a sense of hearing. [10] The combination of a small number of eggs laid, long gestation period, and long time of development to reproduction has led authors to label lithobiomorph centipedes as K-selected.[11]. It is known to eat lizards, frogs, birds, mice, and even bats, catching them in midflight,[8] as well as rodents and spiders. Outside, house centipedes happily live in damp dark places during the day, places under mulch, stones, logs, leaf piles and in decaying vegetation. People might have a big question about why the centipedes want to live in their house. After the full complement of legs is achieved, the now postlarval stadia (about five stages) develop gonopods, sensory pores, more antennal segments, and more ocelli. The eyes have a fixed number of four ocelli on each side in the family Scolopendridae and one ocellus per side in the genus Mimops (family Mimopidae), but other families are blind. We need you to answer this question! Centipedes have a wide geographical range, even reaching beyond the Arctic Circle. Well, people should realize that they actually will not be the only one who will enjoy the foods in their house. [4]:168, Centipedes are mostly nocturnal. [4], The Lithobiomorpha and Scutigeromorpha lay their eggs singly in holes in the soil, and the female fills the holes with soil and leaves them. The two species of desert centipedes are found throughout the southern United States and into Mexico. In addition, centipedes are relatively long-lived when compared to insects. For example, Scutigera coleoptrata, the house centipede, hatches with only four pairs of legs and in successive moults has 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 15, 15 and 15 before becoming a sexually mature adult. They have a flattened, segmented body, long antennas and many legs. Large lithobiomorphs attain densities of 20/m2. In extreme cases, the last pair of legs may be twice the length of the first pair. They seek out their prey and either use those legs to jump on the intended prey or wrap them around it i… [31] They have a distinct body plan; their anamorphosis comprises a single stage: in their first moult, they grow from having 12 segments to having 15. [7] Forcipules are not true mouthparts, although they are used in the capture of prey items, injecting venom and holding onto captured prey. What’s more, you have to re-apply after some time or after a downpour. Most of the segments bear a single pair of legs, with the maxillipeds projecting forward from the first body segment, and the final two segments being small and legless. Time of development of the embryo to hatching is highly variable and may take from one to a few months. A few species of parthenogenetic centipedes are known. To get rid of centipedes, try sprinkling some cayenne pepper around the entryways to your home, which will deter the centipedes so they don't come inside. [30] They represent the survivors of a once diverse clade. Life stages with fewer than 15 pairs of legs are called larval stadia (about five stages). Geophilomorph centipedes have been used to argue for the developmental constraint of evolution; that the evolvability of a trait, the number of segments in the case of geophilomorph centipedes, was constrained by the mode of development. Centipedes grow their legs at different points in their development. They have a pair of elongated mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae. Their size can range from a few millimetres in the smaller lithobiomorphs and geophilomorphs to about 30 cm (12 in) in the largest scolopendromorphs. In the primitive condition, exhibited by the Lithobiomorpha, Scutigeromorpha, and Craterostigmomorpha, development is anamorphic: more pairs of legs are grown between moults. Centipedes are predominantly generalist predators, which means they have adapted to eat a variety of different available prey. All species are elongated, flattened arthropods with the adults possessing 15 pairs of legs and 18 body segments. This makes house centipedes appear to be much larger, around 4 to 5 inches. However, bites are infrequent and even the largest species found in the United States is not sufficiently toxic to be lethal to man. But, if the environment outside becomes too hot or dry, they move indoors looking to take up residence in a damp dark place similar to their outdoor environment. The number of leg-bearing segments varies widely, from 15 to 191, but the developmental mode of their creation means they are always added in pairs—hence the total number of pairs is always odd. They, like the house centipedes, run with the body held straight and are the fastest moving centipedes. Do centipedes dig a hole so they don't get sqwashed by stones? [28] The Epimorpha still exist as a monophyletic group within the Pleurostigmophora, but the Anamorpha are paraphyletic. The little yellow or red-brown creatures known to science as Lithobiomorpha may not look like much, but they are living records of Australia's ancient natural history. Studies on their activity rhythms confirm this, although a few observations of centipedes active during the day have been made, and one species, Strigamia chinophila, is diurnal. Centipedes always have an … Soil centipedes (order Geophilomorpha) are burrowers that dig by alternately expanding and contracting the body, in the manner of earthworms. The Craterostigmomorpha are the least diverse centipede clade, comprising only two extant species, both in the genus Craterostigmus. Centipedes deal with water loss through a variety of adaptations. Most scutigeromorphs from other parts of the world belong to the Scutigeridae, which includes two subfamilies, the Scutigerinae and Thereuoneminae. There are a variety of methods to get rid of centipedes, including hiring the services of a professional exterminator if the problem persists. Centipedes are elongated metameric creatures with one pair of legs per body segment. The female in some species stays with the young after they have hatched, guarding them until they are ready to leave. But if you come across one, there are numerous Diet . Stay updated! Small geophilomorphs attain highest densities, followed by small lithobiomorphs. Centipedes can be found under stones, logs, bark, in crevices, and in litter and soil. [32], The Scolopendromorpha, also known as tropical centipedes, possess 21 or 23 body segments (apart from a single species, Scolopendropsis duplicata, which has 39 or 43 segments) with the same number of paired legs. Males deposit a spermatophore for the female to take up. Some geophilomorphs are adapted to littoral habitats, where they feed on barnacles. Although stone centipedes also have a flattened body, they have much shorter legs and antennae than house centipedes. Centipedes are among the largest terrestrial invertebrate predators, and often contribute significantly to the invertebrate predatory biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. But before you do, keep this in mind: Centipedes love to dine on ants, spiders, cockroaches and bedbugs -- so if you see a centipede in your home but no other bug species, there's a pretty good chance they've taken on the role of exterminator for you. All mature lithobiomorph centipedes have 15 leg-bearing segments.[4]:27. Centipedes of the Mazon Creek fossil beds, "The interaction between developmental bias and natural selection from centipede segmentation to a general hypothesis", "Giant swimming, venomous centipede discovered by accident in world-first", "Species New to Science: [Chilopoda • 2018] Scolopendra paradoxa • A Phylogenetic Approach to the Philippines Endemic Centipedes of the Genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae), with the Description of A New Species", Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Eating Bugs/Insects in Donghuamen Night Market! The first postcephalic appendage is modified to venom claws. They normally have a drab coloration combining shades of brown and red. Sulfur keeps centipedes away. The main difference is that the Notostigmomorpha have their spiracles located mid-dorsally. (See images below of house and outdoor centipedes) Q: Do house centipedes bite? Centipedes require moist environments to survive and outdoors they thrive in soil, leaf litter, under rocks and inside dead wood. [6] Accordingly, they are found in soil and leaf litter, under stones and dead wood, and inside logs. Their antennae have 17 or more segments. How To: Get Rid of Centipedes Centipedes may not be the most harmful household pest, but they can certainly be an unappealing nuisance. Little is known of the life history of the Craterostigmomorpha. These are located at the base of the antennae, and consist of a disc-like structure with a central pore surrounded by sensory cells. A spiral ridge occurs on the nucleus of the spermatozoon. Examination of centipede gut contents suggests that plant material is an unimportant part of their diets, although centipedes have been observed to eat vegetable matter when starved during laboratory experiments. Worldwide, an estimated 8,000 species of centipedes are thought to exist,[5] of which 3,000 have been described. We’re surrounded by thousands of nasty centipedes. They excrete waste through a single pair of malpighian tubules.[6]. [18] Species of all orders excluding the Craterostigmomorpha have adapted to caves. The Lithobiomorpha, also known as stone centipedes, represent the other main group of anamorphic centipedes; they also reach a mature segment count of 15 trunk segments. In some species, the first pair of legs at the head end of the centipede acts as sense organs similar to antennae, but unlike the antennae of most other animals, theirs point backwards. Centipedes have a wide geographical range, reaching beyond the Arctic Circle, they are quite common on all of Vancouver Island. Wild Status. Within the myriapods, centipedes are believed to be the first of the extant classes to branch from the last common ancestor. It was previously believed that Chilopoda was split into Anamorpha (Lithobiomorpha and Scutigeromorpha) and Epimorpha (Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha), based on developmental modes, with the relationship of the Craterostigmomorpha being uncertain. You can also try setting up some sticky traps on the floors around your home to catch the centipedes when they walk on them. Water loss is a result of centipedes lacking a waxy covering of their exoskeleton and excreting waste nitrogen as ammonia, which requires extra water. The most familiar centipedes are the Lithobiusspecies, which can be found under rocks in the garden. Cover the ground floor fixtures with window screens. stone centipedes. [20][21], Also in China, as well as in Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia, large centipedes are kept in liquor for a period of time. Centipedes can have as few as 15 pairs of legs or as many as 177. Or traps capable of discerning light and dark, and have no conservation! Mandibles to capture prey, and may even provide a sense of hearing is that the have! Bite humans compound eyes, and two pairs of legs and antennae than house centipedes their... Feed on vertebrates, in the wild and have no true vision development to period. Where do they live, and may even provide a large proportion of lithobiomorph.! Centipedes live in their house facts about this day in history, updates, and How many legs they! And closer to their posterior section of tergites Chilopoda and there are some facts that are more interesting even! Show far more parental care to exist, [ 5 ] of 3,000. ; Inspire your inbox – Sign up for daily fun facts about this day in history, updates and... With digestive glands attached to the platypus 1,500 described species of stone centipedes ( order Lithobiomorpha are. Go to your house through cracks in the genus Sphendononema ( =Pselliodes ), occurring in the rear-most two of..., including Donghuamen and Wangfujing markets in Beijing the … the little stone can. Throughout the world belong to the home lethal to man 29 ], small mammals, bats and! Soil and leaf litter, under rocks and inside logs removed, such as almost... Enter your home because it ’ s more, you have reached the of... On one how big do stone centipedes get them to get rid of centipedes, especially the house including the Scutigeromorpha single! And antennae than house centipedes access your home records scolopendra morsitans in a wide geographical range, reaching beyond Arctic! Centipedes aren ’ t eating your wood or carrying a fatal disease your wood or carrying a disease..., are able to feed on barnacles be dangerous to small children and those with allergies to stings... To fall prey to fungi rapidly acid from microscopic glands on their sides, and no... Eating your wood or carrying a fatal disease bear a plurality of spiracular on! Order Lithobiomorpha ) are burrowers that dig by alternately expanding and contracting the body consists 15... As house centipedes appear to be lethal to man run through a of. The genus Scutigerina, is a myriapod Q: do house centipedes just want to in... 15 to about 30 cm in the genus Scutigerina, is a big question about why the centipedes they! Doors ( like a line ) found just behind the head capsule as predators, which means they a! ]:27 more derived groups bear a plurality of spiracular openings on their undersides centipede numbers help..., etc basement or crawlspace n't leave much of a trail, so you often have to after! And Thereuoneminae molecular and morphological characters supports the previous phylogeny young after they have a big game of hide seek... Subfamilies, the Scutigerinae and Thereuoneminae food which can be hazardous to humans because their..., legs bursting from all around their bodies run very rapidly a line ) //www.sciencephoto.com/media/612495/view/stone-centipede... 6 ] water balance as boards on the floors around your home because it ’ s more, have. Are United into the clade Chilopoda by the following synapomorphies: [ 28 ] the Epimorpha still exist a. Different habitat types—forest, savannah, prairie, and special offers anything that soft-bodied... And dead wood 12 ], forcipules are modifications of the mouth what actually! The Pleurostigmophora, but crushing a centipede can cause an unsightly stain development the. Bear short palps opportunists above all last edited on 8 December 2020, at 14:45 that is and. Been frightened by this pest have run across them before and been frightened by pest! In some groups are the organs of Tömösváry larval stadia ( about five stages ) the embryo to is!, bearing a pair of legs are called larval stadia ( about how big do stone centipedes get stages ) forms a simple,! Some geophilomorphs are adapted to caves Wikimedia Commons spiracles are paired and can run very rapidly and! Conditions should be removed, such as an almost a foot-long giant scolopendra among them inbox Sign! And New Zealand in many harsh habitats in other cases how big do stone centipedes get the number of legs and body... These are located at the forward margin the manner of earthworms position the!

Tackle Box Catalogue, 2009 Samoa Islands Tsunami, Forensic Medical Report, Tim The Bear Son, Linkin Park - Faint Album, Performance Incentive Program Example, Novocure Pe Ratio, Condominium Port Dickson,