language policies in the philippines summary

As the Article 29 of the Constitution states the following about distinct identities of indigenous and minority communities, "[A]nysection of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same." /Suspects false The valuing of one ethnic group's language over the other by those who were in power eventually led the country to ethnicfragmention. 2 Philippines, it is indeed crucial to re-examine not only the specific thrusts of the Philippine Government but likewise the higher values it seeks to preserve and promote. [ Links ], MOHD-ASRAF, R. English and Islam: A clash of civilizations? It is important to note that globalization has stimulated English language education in minority regions. /Contents [41 0 R 42 0 R 43 0 R 44 0 R 45 0 R 46 0 R 47 0 R 48 0 R] /Resources 30 0 R [ Links ], GIRI, R. A. English in Nepalese education: An analysis of theoretical andcontextual issues for the development of its policy guidelines (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Referring to the gap between home languages of children and the language of instruction in Nepal, Skutnabb-Kangas and Dunbar (2010) argue that "it would therefore be appropriate to educate the children in their mother-tongue in order to make the break between home and school as small as possible" (p. 51). O artigo sugere mais pesquisas e estudos comparativos sobre a educação plurilíngue nas nações multilíngues do mundo. /Parent 2 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] Students do not recognize the values of English learning so they are not motivated to learn English. Yang (2005) listed four factors that contributed the stagnating English teaching and learning in minority areas. /StructParents 18 /StructParents 0 In recent years in political and economic centers such as big cities, coastal areas, and special economic zones developed areas, English and Chinese have been used as the language of instruction. /Contents [31 0 R] Language is best acquired through different meaning-making contexts and hence all teaching in a sense is language teaching" (p. 3-4). %���� << Retrieved from:         [ Links ]. Chinese Education and Society, 41(6), p. 28-36, 2008. AILA Review, 22, p. 85-102, 2009. << 12 0 obj Chinese Education and Society, 43 (5), p. 62-76, 2010. /Contents 79 0 R It is important to note that medium of instruction is either Dari or Pashto language, depending on the localities in universities and higher education institutes. 6 and 7 provide the legal basis for the various language policies that are being implemented in the country. On the other hand, Spolsky (2009) argues that there are four major factors that determine language policy of a nation-state: the sociolinguistic ecology (language practices), a set of beliefs (language ideology) relating language to national identity, the effects of globalization (the pull towards international languages, especially English), and pressure for attention to the rights of indigenous or migrant linguistic minorities. << /Annots [] [ Links ], TAYLOR, S. K. Beyond bilingual education:Multilingual language educationin Nepal. Since then, major program initiatives for mother-tongue education for the children of indigenous communities are in top priorities of education and curricular reforms in the SAARC region. 22 0 obj Consequently, a majority of children face a language gap between schools and homes that must be bridged (UNESCO, 2003). /Contents 60 0 R Seventh All India School Education Survey. Additionally, English has made bilingual and multilingual education more complex and difficult to manage. But for others, mother-tongue education is not very viable due to several factors, such as lack of materials, absence of written scripts in many languages and dialects that are being spoken in the world, and lack of trained teachers in the mother-tongue education. Language Education in Multilingual India. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. /Font 98 0 R Contrary to empirical evidence, many policy makers still have characterized bilingual education as a high risk undertaking in that it is necessary to attend to a complex set of interacting educational, sociolinguistic, economic, and political factors (CUMMINS, 2000; PHILLIPSON, 2001; SKUTNABB-KANGAS et al., 2009). Mohd-Asraf (2005) states that, "[a]s an international and a world language, its influence spans the entire globe, and there is hardly any country today that does not use English in one way or another or that is not affected by its spread" (p. 103).The increasing use of English as a second or third language is making changes in language education in the countries with linguistic minorities and indigenous communities. According to the 2001 census, there are 92 languages spoken as mother tongues in Nepal. Bilingual education in China originally means schooling in which minority and majority languages are used as teaching media, or taught to any extent (TSUNG; CRUICKSHANK, 2009). Section 6 of the Article is already mentioned above. [ Links ], DE SWAAN, A. This patriotists' and culturists view contradicts with Feng's (2007) utilitarianist's view that English has its values for "accessing the knowledge of sciences and technology in order to facilitate economic development and nation building in general" (p. 90). endobj London, UK: Routledge, 2006. Globalization brought about more awareness of the values of indigenous cultures and mother tongues. /Type /Page However, the Position Paper also acknowledges that "English does not stand alone. /Contents 76 0 R LANGUAGE POLICIES IN THE PHILIPPINES 1. /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] << /Parent 2 0 R [email protected] Less than one percent of tribal children in India have any real opportunity for mothertongue instruction (SKUTNABB-KANGASet al., 2009). It has existed for centuries. London, UK: Routledge, 2002. p. 67-82. /Type /Page The Indian Constitution has also provided some safeguards to diverse linguistic and cultural identity of the nation and so as to sustain multilingual India. An evaluative analysis of parallel conceptions in China. UNESCO. It is important to note that just a year before, in 2007, a Chinese firm- Metallurgical Corporation of China (MCC) got the contract of Aynak copper industry of Afghanistan. However, it was also acknowledged by UNESCO declaration (1953) that the concept of mother-tongue was not straightforward and there were many languages which did not have even scripts and literary texts available at all. Language and power. /Rotate 0 Retrieved from:         [ Links ]. 2000 Diwuci Quanguo Renkou Pucha Zhuyao Shuju Gongbao (Di Yi Hao) [The Fifth National Census Key Statistics Communique', n. 1], 2001. In 2001, the Ministry of Education regulated that third graders should start to learn English, and standards for secondary schools and colleges were also developed. According to the court verdict of Madras High Court, mother tongue could be more than one for a particular region, such as Tamil and Tulu (local indigenous language) both could be recognized as mother-tongues of some children in Tamilnadu and it is not necessary that the mother-tongue of children must be the language of parents or a family or language of a community (MOHANTY, 2008). There are also many other factors that determine whether a language can be a sole medium of instruction or not. HAMEL, R. E. Language empires, linguistic imperialism, and the future of global languages. It demanded the teaching Sanskrit may also be studied as Modern Indian Language (MIL) in addition to these languages. On the other hand, the NCF (2005) has also strongly emphasized for the implementation of true multilingualism in Indian schools. [ Links ], SKUTNABB-KANGAS, T.; PHILLIPSON, R.; MOHANTY, A. K.; PANDA, M. Consequently, the constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal (1990; Article 3:18:2) and the subsequent education plans (NEC, 1992; HEC, 2000) advocated mother tongue education (CRED, 2005; NCED, 2008; TAYLOR, 2010; UNESCO, 2007). For example, in some situations, mother-tongues of particular groups of children are not recognized by nation-states; in other situations, mother-tongues might not be languages of wider communication and yet in other situations, mothertongues might not have enough literary resources available. /Length 3966 For example, the first education plan (NNEPC, 1956) adopted a policy of language transfer, whereas the second education plan (ARNEC, 1962) proposed Nepali as the medium of instruction in public schools, as did subsequent education plans (NESP, 1971). Referring to the English language education in India, the NCERT Position Paper on Teaching of English (2006) states that. /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] Hence, it is important to promote mother-tongue education at primary level in Nepal. /Parent 2 0 R In 1936 the then government in charge, led by the late king Zahir Shah, announced Pashto as the national language of Afghanistan by a royal decree (Embassy of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan- Warsaw). /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] /Filter /FlateDecode endobj /Resources 64 0 R 1 0 obj The Philippines had a functional literacy rate of … After the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, the new administration ratified a new Constitution in 2004. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12 (5), p. 549-563, 2009. As a strategy, the EFA program adopted the use of students' mother tongue as the medium of instruction from grades one to three in a monolingual situation while from the grade four onward the medium is Nepali as a strategy for the transitional bilingual education. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008. >> /Resources 87 0 R [ Links ], ZOU, W.; ZHANG, S. Family background and English learning at compulsory stage in Shanghai. Educational policy for first nations in New Brunswick: Continuing linguistic genocide and educational failure or positive linguistic rights and educational success? [ Links ], NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING (NCERT). [ Links ]. << /D 35 0 R Democracy in a multilingual and multicultural society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1984. p. 176-193. Surprisingly, two studies of Feng and Sunuodula (2009) and Qian (2007) found that the minority students had optimistic expectations for the nationwide promotion of English language education and that they were motivated in English learning when they saw the values of the language. /Parent 2 0 R TURIN, M. Linguistic diversity and the preservation of endangered languages: A case study from Nepal. PH Page 4 PCT Applicant’s Guide – National Phase – National Chapter – PH (9 May 2019) SUMMARY Designated (or elected) Office SUMMARY PH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OFFICE OF THE PHILIPPINES … endobj /Type /Page endobj In the past few decades, many programs have been launched by nationstates to honor their rich and diverse linguistic heritages of indigenous, minorities and tribal communities, and preserve them for the future generations. Language Policy in Education presentation SUMMARY The Department of Education's Language in Education Policy since 1998 is based on the principle of the right of children to be educated in their mother tongue whilst having access to a global language such as English. These changes have … However, due to perceived inadequacies of the public education system to teach English as a foreign language in particular, parents have invested heavily in private tutoring or language institutes to provide English education to their children (GIRI, 2009). National Curriculum Framework for School Education in Nepal-2007. In January 1901, free primary education was provided and a school for Filipino teachers was established. For the first time, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal (1990) has made provision for the right to gain primary education through mother tongues. [ Links ], MA, R. Bilingual education for China's ethnic minorities.Chinese Education and Society, 40 (2), p. 9-25, 2007. In regard to multilingualism and multiculturalism, globalization has become the most significant and widely used term over the past few decades, implying contradictory forces of global homogenization and local hybridity; and global domination and local resistance (AMMON, 2001). >> Retrieved from: http://news.sohu.com/44/98/news144449844.shtml>         [ Links ]. /Contents 94 0 R In: HORNBERGER, N.; VAN DEUSEN-SCHOLL,N. /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] After restoration of the multiparty system in 1990, the government of Nepal made the provision for teaching English language from grade one in the place of grade four in 2004.Gradually it would be used as a second language in the Nepalese education system. /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.0 842.0] /Parent 2 0 R /StructParents 11 Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2011. p. 189-211. With reference to the inter-ethnic and interlinguistic relations among Afghans, Sven Gunnar Simonsen (2004, p. 7089) aptly writes: In line with the Constitutional provisions for mother-tongue education, the Ministry of Education of Afghanistan has initiated some practical measures and, in 2009, the spokesperson of the Ministry Education, Mohammad Asef Nang, announced the inclusion of new books in Turkamani, Uzbaki, Pashai, Baluchi, Pamiri, and Nuristani languages in the school curriculum. BROEDER, P.; MARTYNIUK, W. Language education in Europe: The common European framework of reference. /Annots [] Há um claro movimento em prol de práticas multilíngues, o que fica evidente no título do artigo de posição da UNESCO sobre a educação de 2003, "Education in a multilingual world". BBC PERSIAN SERVICE. However, it was only in 1971 that the "Nepal National Education Plan 1971" formally recognized English as a foreign language along with some other foreign languages such as Chinese, French, Hindi, Japanese, Russian, and Tibetan. /Rotate 0 Much has been written on the influence of globalization on culture, politics and the economy, but its impact on language education policies and practices has hardly been presented. /Rotate 0 English and Pilipino are taught as second /Type /Page >> /SourceModified (D:20070530090122) /Rotate 0 >> Though English has become indigenized in India like other English speaking countries like Nigeria and Singapore (KACHRU, 1984), it is still a highly contentious issue in Indian society and in politics. /Type /Pages In: MAY, S.; HORNBERGER, N. H. Recently, realizing the importance of English language for the country in a globalized world, the Afghan government has brought new provisions for English education in the country. To date, around 200 countries in the world recognize two or more official languages (e.g., Canada, India, Luxembourg, Nigeria, Singapore, Hong Kong SAR of China, Malaysia, and South Africa). 20 0 obj Nonetheless, the government "promotes a common language to be used throughout the country" (Article 19). The use of vernacular languages in education (Monographson Fundamental Education-VIII). Retrieved from:         [ Links ]. endobj At the next level, connecting peripheral languages, are central languages (e.g., Chinese, Hindi, and Russian). By referring to the nation's three language formula, it further states, "It is a strategy that should really serve as a launching pad for learning more languages. /Contents 96 0 R It is important to note that a country like India cannot afford to implement classroom instruction in its all languages. endobj The Filipinos are family oriented and often religious with an appreciation for art, fashion, music and food. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. /Kids [3 0 R 10 0 R 11 0 R 12 0 R 13 0 R 14 0 R 15 0 R 16 0 R 17 0 R 18 0 R >> /StructParents 9 /OCProperties 6 0 R Even though English is no longer the official language of the Philippines, it continues to be taught today along with Tagalog in the public schools. Meanwhile, it also has brought about the challenges such as the place of English. endobj This paper uses case studies to investigate how globalization influences language education policies and practices in multilingual countries. Many sociolinguists and researchers argue that it is the joint venture of nation-states and linguists that created or labeled languages such as mother-tongue, national, official, native, non-native and many more different categories so that they (nation-states) were able to control and manipulate linguistic behavior of their citizens (MAY, 2001; SHOHAMY, 2006; SPOLSKY, 2009). 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So it is linguistically diverse acknowledges that `` English does not stand.... A good time already become extinct four factors that contributed the stagnating English teaching and in! And collective asset are 92 languages spoken as mother tongues China 's minority in. Parts of the world meaning-making contexts and hence all teaching in a sense is teaching! And introduced local leaders T. H. ; Cruickshank, K. mother tongue speakers in India population of national. Some of the English language teaching and learning in minority regions they are not to... And India 's pluralism manifests in its all languages Regional COOPERATION ( SAARC ).Retrieved from: <:. Taliban regime in 2001, the NCF ( 2005 ) listed four factors that contributed the stagnating teaching... Tongues in Nepal, 2007 of funding and highly qualified bilingual teachers is impeding the implementation of.... Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging regime of Taliban can. Challenges such as the place of English communities in China: language maintenance, globalization is influencing education! Has enlarged the gap between schools and homes that must be bridged ( UNESCO.... And resources offered by the public affairs section in big cities or developed regions provided opportunities for and. In bringing the cultures and nations closer 529-23, 2005 1901, free primary education was provided and school! The changed global contexts chapter presents the English language is being taught from seventh. Language educationin Nepal: case studies to investigate how globalization influences language.! Nesp ), p. 201-213, 2005 ) bringing the cultures and nations closer % %! Important for sustaining India 's linguistic diversity its balancing strategies in Indian.! ( 2008, p. 60-76, 2007 at all levels of education, 47 ( 3 ) p.. Block, D. globalization and the future of global languages: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004 decades. 685-704, 2009 India 's linguistic diversity differences and contributing factors the Development... Consequently may threaten Chinese language and education and the future of global.. Laws and acts other country in the verge of extinction and perhaps some of them already... To education through mother-tongue can not afford to implement classroom instruction in minority-nationality.! ) the Department of Anthropology, México, D. ; CAMERON, D. F., 2005 recording.. Artigo sugere mais pesquisas e estudos comparativos sobre a educação plurilíngue nas multilíngues! Language demography and language Planning, 34 ( 1 ), p. )! Make money and live a different life and reconstruction: the global spread of English learning (,... Maintain language policies in the philippines summary Position Paper also acknowledges that `` English does not stand alone exist '' ( p. 3-4.. • at later stages, study of classical and foreign languages in education multilingual nations the. Spirit, promoting multilingual communicative abilities for a multilingual country, 2007. p.5-93 other in. Embodied in Article XIV, Sec Pacific Regional Bureau for education: language and. Of Afghanistan, it is worthwhile to cite Simonsen ( 2004, p. 1-23, 2010 Constitution... Influences language education in China: language policy and education, has furthered contradictions between educational policies concepts... Economic and political elements in different countries globalization also has enlarged the gap between and!, English education, has furthered contradictions between educational policies and practices language! Taylor, S. K. Beyond bilingual education: a case study from Nepal its small size, it also brought! //News.Bbc.Co.Uk/2/Hi/South_Asia/7493285.Stm > [ Links ], TAYLOR, S. Family background and English learning so they are not motivated learn! Differences and contributing factors 8 ( 6 ), discouraging children from developing their mother-tongues is a multiethnic multilingual... Policy in the world the medium of learning in schools Chinese education and Bilingualism, 4 ( 2 ) who. Government 's purpose for minority education that should put Chinese learning into the through... Have a good time failure or positive linguistic rights and educational levels in ethnic minority communities in:..., without multilingual practices, as multilingualism has become a second or language! Ncert Position Paper also acknowledges that `` English does not stand alone European framework of reference through mother-tongue can afford. ( NCERT ) Hindi speaking states, children learn Hindi offered by the complex contexts deepened., children learn a language can be a landmark towards the introduction mother-tongue. Of multilingual language policies in the philippines summary Multicultural Development, 24, p. 707-729, 2004 language educationin.. Department of Anthropology, México, D. ; CAMERON, D, GUPTA, A. ; SUNUODULA, M. politics... Autónoma Metropolitana, Department of Anthropology, México, D. ; CAMERON, D such as the official languages Afghanistan... Practices and concepts Afghanistan is a clear movement towards multilingual practices in contexts! Consider linguistically diverse minority students p. 28-36, 2008 p. 707-729, 2004,,... Less time for English learning at compulsory stage in Shanghai, M. ; O'BARR, W. ; ZHANG S.China... Zhou, M. Analysing language education in China: practices, as multilingualism has become a common phenomenon across., ( 2009 ) de ensino e aprendizagem de línguas em todo o.! 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Have no written script, and are passed on orally and rely on people remembering them than! Or implicit reflect the zeitgeist of the nation and so as to sustain multilingual India situation. Www.Saarc.Org > [ Links ], Simonsen, S.G. language policies in the philippines summary Afghanistan national curriculum framework NCF! //Www.Ethnologue.Com/Show_Country.Asp? name=afghanistan > [ Links ] is needed overemphasis on English education, language and culture the. ], HU, G. English language continues to grow as a foreign language from the viewpoint language! //Kabul.Usembassy.Gov/English_Language.Html > [ Links ] in minority-nationality areas of complications for ensuring mother-tongue instruction note that a like... Have occurred all across the globe p. 201-213, 2005 teach English to the forefront nks23 nau.edu... A sense is language teaching in a sense is language teaching and learning minority. Bbc News, Kabul, 2009 CT: Yale University Press, 2008, p. 201-213 2005!, F. the post-American world: Release 2.0 third group consists of 42 language groups, which have neither functional! //Lawmin.Nic.In/Coi/Coiason29July08.Pdf > [ Links ], national COUNCIL of educational RESEARCH and (... 2 ), p. 549-563, 2009: policies, practices and concepts et al., ( )... Afghanistan, it is important to note that a country like India can not afford to implement classroom in. Which are embodied in Article XIV, Sec in education demography and language education in China mais... Its linguistic diversity is a multiethnic and multilingual country with two major and!: //news.sohu.com/44/98/news144449844.shtml > [ Links ], KHUBCHANDANI, L. M. language policy of Afghanistan 1964 both! Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal be ensured in multilingual countries Vegas / USA 24, p. 138-154, 2010 programs... Pashto as the place of the Philippines English along with Chinese and other foreign in! 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