morphology of xiphinema

Uteri long, 35 – 45 μm, not clearly separated from the oviduct, without spermatheca. Vulva anteriorly located at 26 % – 29 % of total body length, vagina 1/3 to 1/2 body diam. They are typically divided into two groups, namely X. americanum-group with about 50 species and non-X. 2. Initial morphometric data and descriptions of males and the four juvenile stages of Xiphinema coxi coxi Tarjan, 1964 collected from soil about the roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at Gainesville, Florida, and from a greenhouse microplot at Fayetteville, Arkansas, are given. From a practical standpoint, it … The Xiphinema americanum-group is a large species complex containing more than 50 nematode species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 28S D2–D3 revealed that they are clearly different species (Fig. The blastn search of the 28S sequence of the Chinese population (KP793050) of X. brasiliense revealed a 99 % match (763/766=99 %, 3 nucleotide differences) with one Brazilian population of X. brasiliense (AY601616) from GenBank. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00437.x, Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, C., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Decraemer, W., Vovlas, N., Prior, T., Palomares-Rius, J., Castillo, P. (2012): Phylogeny, diversity, and species delimitation in some species of the. Nematol., 8: 15 – 26, CABI. In the present study we collected nematode samples from different locations in the USA, … (1998): Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Alkemade, J. R. M., Loof, P. A. In this study, a comparison of the ranges of the morphometrics of females from S. theezans in Guangdong (Liu et al., 1995) and our population of X. brasiliense from Gleichenia linearis in Shenzhen, Guangdong revealed that almost all characters of both populations are very similar except for a more anteriorly-located guide ring from the S. theezans population (94 – 108 vs 109 – 120 μm) (Table 2). x Poncirus tn/oliata) .That is, 1096 Degree Days (base 20C). 2001). Nematol., 8: 153 – 159, Posada, D., Criandall, K. A. (1983): Studies on nematodes parasitic on woody plants. Russ. 1-16) Stylet shapes were not different enough to discern one Xiphinema species from another except by size. shared 99 % – 100 % identities with 0 – 9 nucleotide differences. Lamberti, F., Ciancio, A., Agostinelli, A., Coiro, M. I. Morphological identification of specimens for Xiphinema was done using the polytomous keys provided by Lamberti et al. In: Zuckerman, B. M., Mai, W. F., Krusberg, L. R. (Eds) Plant Nematology Laboratory Manual. Specimens were heat-killed, fixed in 3 % formaldehyde and processed to glycerin by the formalin-glycerin method (Hooper, 1970; Golden, 1990). Lordello et Costa,1961 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Japan. nov. is characterised by a very long body (7.2–8.7 mm), a very long odontostyle and odontophore (190–206 and 105–120 µm, respectively), and a well developed pseudo-Z-organ, comprising 8 to 12 sclerotised bodies. Compared with X. incognitum from Fujian (Wu 2007) and Japan (Shishida 1983), a closest species to the Chinese X. americanum s.l., no obvious morphometrics difference was found. 1960, Brown and Topham 1984, 1985, Siddiqi and Lenne 1990) ( Figure 9 ). Xiphinema bricolensis Ebsary, Vrain & Graham, 1989 (ref. Mol. Xiphinema brasiliense has been found in Brazil (Lordello, 1951), Guatemala, Ceylon and Nigeria (Cohn & Sher, 1972), the Ivory Coast and Australia (Luc, 1981), Peru (Alkemade & Loof, 1990), India (Loof et al., 2001), Venezuela (Cordero, 2003), Taiwan (Ni et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2004), China (Wu, 2007). Morphological identification in this group is complex due to overlapping morphometrics and the sharing of many morphological characters. Revised Edition, Amherst, MA, USA: University of Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. populations mounted in formalin–glycerin in this study. Additional data on the occurrence and distribution of Xiphinema non-americanum group species in Romania are provided. Journal of Nematology 48(1): 20-27. Golden, A. M. (1990): Preparation and mounting nematodes for microscopic observation. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. Parasitism and Pathogenicity of, Yu He. Syst. It is of economic importance on grape, strawberry, hops, fruit trees and other crops. populations and X. incognitum and X. brevicolle sensu Lamberti et al. Brown, D. J. F., Topham, P. B. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England. A. Species identification on Xiphinema americanum-group is difficult or even impossible due to conservative and overlapping morphological and morphometric characters. J. Nanjing Agric. However, analysis of molecular data (28S D2–D3 rDNA) of these two species indicated their identify being only 89 % – 90 % (110 – 112 nucleotide differences). Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere at a depth of 15 – 30 cm of different plants, namely Acacia acacia, Taiwan acacia, Blechnoid, Lychee in Tianxinshan and Awn dichotoma in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites. [3], Eggs are laid singly in thin water layers in the soil and are not part of an egg mass. J. To learn more about the use of cookies, please read our, Alkemade, J. R. M., Loof, P. A. Sakai, H., Takeda, A., Mizukubo, T. (2011): First report of. B., Franklin, M. T,. Tail short conoid, with rounded terminus and four lateral pores. Through this study, four nematode populations (SZX1301 – SZX1304) were identified as Xiphinema hunaniense, one population (SZX1305) as X. brasiliense, and five populations (SZX1306 – SZX1310) as X. americanum s.l. Lecture 03 - Morphology and Anatomy of Nematodes Even though nematodes occupy nearly every habitat on earth, they are remarkably similar in morphology and life stages. Griffin, G. D., Asay, K. H., Horton, W. H. (1996): Factors affecting population trends of nematodes on rangeland grasses. 1971. but can be differentiated by the nature of the uterine spines and inclusions in the pseudo-Z-organ. Plant Pathol. First report and molecular characterization of the dagger nematode, Xiphinema oxycaudatum (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) from South Africa. Abstract. (1991): Relationship between Xiphinema brevicolle and X. diffusum with a redescription of X. brevicolle and descriptions of three new species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). The odontostyle is connected to the lining of the cheilostome by a folded membrane called the "guiding ring". A study of topotypes of X. theresiae revealed a larger variation in tail shape of both sexes and the pre-adult juvenile than reported in the original description. Body cuticle smooth. 8 p. Keywords: 28S rRNA, live oak, morphology, morphometrics, phylogeny, redescription, taxonomy, tree, Xiphinema chambersi ; Posted Date: May 23, 2017 Zool. Some species in the X. americanum-group can serve as vectors of several important plant viruses including Tabacco ringspot virus, Tomato ringspot virus, Cherry rasp leaf virus and Peach rosette mosaic virus that damage a wide range of crops (Taylor & Brown, 1997). Xiphinema parasimile, a new putative X. americanum group species is described from Serbia. Cobb, 1913 (Dorylaimida: Longidoridae) from around grape roots in China. Nematol., 6: 203 – 211, Ye, W., Giblin-Davis, R. M., Braasch, H., Morris, K., Thomas, W. K. (2007): Phylogenetic relationships among Bursaphelenchus species (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. species with the female anterior genital branch reduced or absent (Nematoda: Longidoridae). UK: University of Nottingham, Oliveira, C. M. G., Brown, D. J. F., Neilson, R., Monteiro, A. R., Ferraz, L. C. C. B., Lamberti, F. (2003): The occurrence and geographic distribution of Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Brazil. L., Cynodon dactylon Pers., Daucus carota L., Diospyros kaki Thunb., Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., Fragaria sp. Morphometrics of females of Xiphinema spp. A: Entire body; B: Anterior body; C: Reproductive system; D: Vulva (in ventral view); E: Tail in lateral view; F: Tail in ventral view. Many of these nematodes, the majority of them belonging to the Xiphinema americanum-group, can transfer viruses to plants during feeding (Taylor and Brown 1997, Gozel et al. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from grass with key to closely related species. Nematol., 36: 14 – 19, Zheng, J., Brown, D. J. F. (1999): Xiphinema insigne Loos, 1949 and X. hunaniense Wang & Wu, 1992 from Hangzhou, China, and synonymization of X. savaryi Lamberti, Troccoli & Agostinelli, 1997 with X. insigne, and X. siamense Lamberti, Troccoli & Agostinelli, 1997 with X. radicicola Goodey, 1936 (Nematoda: Longidoridae). DNA sequences were aligned using ClustalW (http://workbench.sdsc.edu, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Group, Department of Bioengineering, UC San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA). (Shanghai), 9: 327 – 330 (In Chinese), Long, H., Ling, X., Li, Y., Zheng, Y. Molecular analysis and comparative morphology to resolve a complex of cryptic Xiphinema species. State of California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 324pp. (Range), Light micrographs of Xiphinema hunaniense from Blechnum orientale. Lip region broadly rounded, set off from the rest of body by a depression, 10 – 11 μm in diam. (1988): An examination of methods used to extract virus-vector nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae and Trichodoridae) from soil samples. PhD dissertation. Decraemer, W., Robbins, R. T. (2007): The who, what and where of Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. 2012), from X. brevicolle by having a shorter stylet (137 – 143 vs 144 – 173 μm) (Lordello & Costa 1961; Lamberti et al. Cuticle finely transversely striated. Nematol., 12: 1 – 14. J. Linn. Body cuticle smooth, 3-4 µm thick at mid-body. However, the X. americanum sensu stricto ranges from 1.6 to 1.8 mm in length with an odontostyle and odontophore length slightly greater then 100 µm . Scale bars: A = 500 μm; B, C, E = 20 μm; D = 10 μm. Guide ring 86 – 108 μm from anterior end. (2013): Aphelenchida and. Zool. Morphological intraspecific variation in dagger nematodes from different geographic locations is common (Tarjan, 1969; Brown & Topham, 1985; Cho & Robbins, 1991). [3], There are 296 nominal taxa, including 234 accepted species, 49 synonyms and 13 species inquirendae. species (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Plant Nematode Control. based on polymorphic sequence-tagged sites. Oesophago-intestinal valve heart-shaped. was found in 36% of the Miscanthus plots and in 26% of the P. virgatum plots with a population density range of 22–857/100 cm 3 soil. Xiphinema spp. (1985): Morphometric variability between populations of, Chen, D., Ni, H., Yen, J., Cheng, Y., Tsay, T. (2004): Identification and variation of, Cho, M. R., Robbins, R. T. (1991): Morphological variation among 23, Cohn, E. (1969): The occurrence and distribution of species of, Cohn, E., Orion, D. (1970): The pathological effect of representative, Cohn, E., Mordechai, M. (1969): Investigations on the life cycles and host preference of some species of, Cohn, E., Sher, S. A. In: Southey, J. F. (Ed) Laboratory Methods For Work With Plant And Soil Nematodes. Examination of paratypes of five species of Xiphinema from India described by Singh and Khan (1998) led to the following conclusions: X. larliani appears a valid species close to X. simillimum. The dagger nematode, Xiphinema americanum, associated with decline of shelterbelt trees in South Dakota. 2010, 2012; Barsi & De Luca 2008; Oliveira et al. Wang & Wu, 1992 from Hangzhou, China, and synonymization of, Lamberti, Troccoli & Agostinelli, 1997 with. n. is described based on morphological and molecular characters. long, posteriorly obliquely bent. Sites of Virus Retention in the Alimentary Tract of the Nematode Vectors, Schindler, A.F., 1957. [3], Whitehead, A.G. 1998. (1988): An examination of methods used to extract virus-vector nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae and Trichodoridae) from soil samples. . [1] The genus is of economic importance on grape, strawberry, hops and a few other crops. Four populations (SZX1301–SZX1304) were X. hunaniense, one population (SZX1305) X. brasiliense, and five populations (SZX1306–SZX1310) X. americanum s.l.. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 28S rDNA D2–D3 expansion segment revealed these three species are all distinct species and supported a close relationship with their corresponding species. group. Pharynx typical of genus. DNA samples were stored at –20°C until used as a PCR template. — Zoologica Scripta , 39 , 483–498. 1, Tables 1 & 2) Female: Body 1810 – 2400 μm long, tapering slightly towards anterior and tail region, posterior end arcuate ventrally when heat-killed. Coomans, A., Huys, R., Heyns, J., Luc, M. (2001): Character analysis, phylogeny, and biogeography of the genus, Cordero, M. (2003): Morphometrics of a population of. and X. hunaniense have been reported from China. Our study added new records to the list. Top of page X. diversicaudatum are long (4-6 mm), cylindrical (vermiform) nematodes assuming a J-shape when heat-killed and relaxed. Lordello & da Costa, 1961 and comments on the group. Larget, B., Simon, D. L. (1999): Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. -group complex (Nematoda: Longidoridae), as inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. They are economically important because they are vectors of nepoviruses. Morphological differences were seen in the odontophores and odontostyle bases between the genera and some of the species. Observations on. " Morphology and morphometrics of juvenile stages of Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen (Dorylaimida: Longidoridae) intercepted in import plant quarantine in Japan " L., Saccharum officinarum L., Sorghum bicolor L., Andropogum bicornis L., Clidermia hirta L. D. L., Buxus sinica L., Camellia sasanpua L., Ligustrum quihoui L., L. lucidum L. and Juniperus chinensis L. (Chen et al., 2004; Long et al., 2014; Wu et al., 2007; Zheng et al., 1999) and X. americanum s.l. Vulva a transverse slit, anterior, occupies 23 % – 28 % of total body length, vagina thick-walled, occupying up to 50 % of body width. Nematologica, 15: 295 – 302, Cohn, E., Sher, S. A. The identification codes of these two species revealed identical numbers. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale (Zoologie), Tervuren, Belgique, 287: 1 – 239, Cordero, M. (2003): Morphometrics of a population of Xiphinema brasiliense (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from Tachira, Venezuela. L., Litchi chinensis, Malus sp. biology / control / lectotypes / morphology / nematology / reviews / Xiphinema diversicaudatum / Xiphinema / Longidoridae / invertebrates / animals / eukaryotes / nematoda: Categories: Nematoda: Publication type: Article: Language: English: About: A lectotype male of Xiphinema diversicaudatum is designated by M.R. The sequences of 28S rDNA from four studied populations (KP793046 – KP793049) of X. hunaniense shared 99 % identities with 2 nucleotide differences. In addition, some species are recognized as vectors of a range of nepoviruses. These sequences are also identical to four other populations from Brazil (AY297822), Czech Republic (HM163212), Belgium (AY580057) and Japan (AB604340). (Alkemade & Loof, 1990; Cordero, 2003; Diaz-Silveira & Herrera, 1998; Lordello, 1951; Oliveira et al., 2003; Wu, 2007). Two economically important Xiphinema species, X.index and X.americanum, are both commonly found in California and tend to be problematic in vineyards. Plant Quarant. "On the Morphology of Xiphinema Index Reared On Grape Fanleaf Virus Infected Grapes" published on 01 Jan 1966 by Brill. Nematol. Viruses transmitted by Xiphinema are responsible for greater economic loss than the direct feeding damage to the root system caused by these nematodes. Pan, C. S., Zheng, J. W., Zhou, X. P., Neilson, R., Brown, D. J. F. (2000): Preliminary assessment of the occurrence of longidorid and trichodorid nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae and Trichodoridae) in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Request PDF | Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Xiphinema krugi from Argentina Associated with Silk Floss Tree (Ceiba speciosa) Intercepted in China | A … The three new species X. erriae, X. ripogranum and X. lacrimaspinae are all related to X. meridianum Heyns. Guide ring 109 – 120 μm from anterior end. for China and the observation of this nematode larvae. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:795-798. Thus, these five studied populations were classified as X. americanum s.l.. If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here. The other four species are considered junior synonyms, X. digicaudatum of X. brasiliense; X. gracilicaudatum of X. radicicola; X. arunachalense of X. brevicollum [X. brevicolle]; X. pruni of X. basiri. Nématol., 4: 157–167, Luc, M., Coomans, A., Loof, P. A. Malek RB, 1968. Nematol., 39: 295 – 297, Diaz-Silveira, M. F., Herrera, J. O. Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 62–75, eISSN 1336-9083, ISSN 0440-6605. The dagger nematode is characterized by a 100 μm odontostyle which is used for deep penetration of root tips with its spear-like stylet. species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Brazil. In the present study, no obvious differences were found in morphological and morphometric characters amongst four populations of X. hunaniense (SZX1301 – SZX1304) and amongst five studied populations of X. americanum s.l. Four caudal pores present on each side of tail. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases (October) (1st Edition), Map 1119, Chen, D., Ni, H., Yen, J., Cheng, Y., Tsay, T. (2004): Identification and variation of Xiphinema hunaniense populations from Taiwan. All five populations of X. americanum s.l. (2000), The codes of the Chinese Xiphinema americanum s.l. (Table 1), representing the first report of these three species from the above-mentioned plant hosts except for lychee. Nematol., 38: 418 – 428, Pan, C. S., Zheng, J. W., Zhou, X. P., Neilson, R., Brown, D. J. F. (2000): Preliminary assessment of the occurrence of longidorid and trichodorid nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae and Trichodoridae) in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. A population of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 originating from olive orchards in Brindisi, Italy and containing both adults and all juvenile stages, is described and illustrated. Rev. [1] Males have paired spicules but the gubernaculum and bursa are absent. Afro-Asian J. ., 43: 1185 – 1197. 1998. Ann. Carlos Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Wilfrida Decraemer, Nicola Vovlas, Tom Prior, Juan E. Palomares Rius, Pablo Castillo, Phylogeny, diversity, and species delimitation in some species of the Xiphinema americanum-group complex (Nematoda: Longidoridae), as inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology, European Journal of Plant Pathology, … Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) recently described from India. The Xiphinema americanum-group is a large group containing 55 nematode species occurring around roots of several plants and trees.1 The genus consists of migratory ectoparasitic nematodes which cause root galls in young roots by feeding which result in hypertrophy in cell and necrosis.2Susceptible roots show symptoms of stunting, swellings and dark lesions. Gleichenia linearis is a new host record for X. brasiliense. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02006, Ye, W., Szalanski, A. L., Robbins, R. T. (2004): Phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in. (1998) considered this population as X. hunaniense by morphological observation compared with a population of X. hunaniense from bonsai in Shanghai. J. Ye, W. (1996): Applying Microsoft Works spread sheet in statistics for morphometric data of nematode identification. Don., Prunus persica L., Euterpes edulis Mart., and Butia capitata (Mart.) Plant Pathol., 134: 561 – 597, Gutié Rrez-Gutié Rrez, C., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Remesal, E., Palomares-Rius, J. E., Navas-Corté S, J. Odontostyles are elongate (Fig. americanum-group. A final extension was performed at 72 °C for 10 min (Ye et al., 2007). Other documented hosts include: Nectarine, oak, rose, grapevine, raspberry, carrot, cherry, peach, and soybean. Xiphinema americanum was succesfully identified withspecies-specific primers developed from ITS-1 region of rDNA. A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. The 25 μl PCR was performed using TaqMix DNA polymerase (Guangzhou Dongsheng Biotech Ltd., Guangzhou, China) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The tail is usually short, hemi-spheroid or conoid, with or without a peg; it may also be elongate conoid and even long and filiform. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. Stylet 173 – 193 μm long. Xiphinema spp. 4). (2004). Xiphinema barooghii n. sp. Molecular and morphological characterization of Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with comments on morphometric variations. Oliveira, C. G., Fenton, B., Malloch, G., Brown, D. J. F., Neilson, R. (2005): Development of species-specific primers for the ectoparasitic nematode species. A revised polytomous key code sensu Loof and Luc (1990) for X. brasiliense identification is: A1-B4-C5-D5-E1-F2-G2(3)-H1(2)-I3-J5-K?-L1. Russ. Robbins, R. T., Wang, S. (1998): A comparison between Xiphinema radicicola and X. hunaniense. (1961): A new nematode parasite of coffee roots in Brazil. Keywords – biogeography, morphology, morphometrics, mtDNA, PCR, phylogeny, Russia, Xiphinema bakeri. -group. A., Luc, M. (1990): A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with exclusion of the X. americanum-group. Nematol., 4: 145 – 153, Williams, B. D., Schrank, B., Huynh, C., Shownkeen, R., Waterston, R. H. (1992): A genetic mapping system in Caenorhabditis elegans based on polymorphic sequence-tagged sites. Viruses transmitted by Xiphinema are responsible for greater economic loss than the direct feeding damage to the root system caused by these nematodes. The sequences of 18S rDNA from five studied populations (KP793041 – KP793045) of X. americanum s.l. A, B: Entire body; C: Anterior body; D: Tail in ventral view; E: Tail in lateral view; F: Reproductive system. Xiphinema dentatum is a plant parasitic nematode originally described in Bavaria, Germany, from mixed forests and dry lawns. "On the Morphology of Xiphinema Index Reared On Grape Fanleaf Virus Infected Grapes" published on 01 Jan 1966 by Brill. Light micrographs of female Xiphinema brasiliense from Gleichenia linearis. I. Putative species, their geographical occurrence and distribution, and regional polytomous identification keys for the group. Description: Female body forming an open spiral when killed. The new species belongs to morphospecies group 6 characterised by having two equally developed female genital branches with spines in uterus and a short, rounded tail. Body cuticle smooth. Xiphinema non-americanum group species in Romania are provided. (1995) identified a population from Sageretia theezans Brongn in Guangdong as X. brasiliense only based on morphology, but Song et al. J. Oliveira, C. M. G., HüBschen, J., Brown, D. J. F., Ferraz, L. C. C. B., Wright, F., Neilson, R. (2004): Phylogenetic relationships among. (SZX1306 – SZX1310) showed little variation at morphometrics and molecular characteristics, thus considered different geographical populations belonging to the same species. The first author received a co-scholarship of China Scholarship Council and Guangdong Department of Education. The morphometrics of these species tend to overlap (Robbins and Brown, 1991). is reported from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangxi, Shandong, Hebei and Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Yunnan (CABI, 2011; Wang & Wu, 1992; Xu et al., 1995). The morphology and morphometrics of four studied populations (SZX1301 – SZX1304) of X. hunaniense agreed with the description of type populations except for a lower a (39.7 – 52.7 vs 51.0 – 57.0) and c (37.1 – 51.6 vs 53.0 – 63.0) values (Wang & Wu, 1992). Barsi, L., DE Luca, F. (2008): Morphological and molecular characterization of two putative X. Brodie, B. All representatives possess a very long spear used for puncturing plant cells on the contents of which they feed. They have a long protrusible odontostyle, with 3 basal flanges at the posterior end of the stylet and a relatively posterior guiding ring when compared to the genus Longidorus. 39 – 54, Huelsenbeck, J. P., Ronquist, F. (2001): Mr Bayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. The morphometric data were processed using Excel software (Ye, 1996). Currently, species identification of this genus is mainly based on morphological features and morphometrics. Long, H., Ling, X., Li, Y., Zheng, Y. Xiphinema brasiliense population (SZX1305) agreed with type (Lordello, 1951) and other populations (Cordero, 2003), except for a higher b and c value (5.50 vs 5.05 and 41.60 vs 24.55) (Lordello, 1951), but lie within the ranges of those reported by Cordero (2003). Oliveira, C. M. G., Ferraz, L. C. C. B., Neilson, R. (2006): , species complex or complex of cryptic species? thread like organisms as they look like tiny threads moving under microscope. Rectum length 1/2 of the body diam. PCR products were cleaned using an EZ Spin Column DNA Gel Extraction Kit (Bio Basic Inc., Markham, Ontario, Canada) according to the manufacturer’s protocol before being sequenced by Shanghai Sangon Biological Engineering Technology and Service Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China) using an ABI PRISM 3730 sequencing system. During a nematode biodiversity survey from 2012 to 2014 in Shenzhen, China, ten nematode populations (SZX1301–SZX1310) of Xiphinema were recovered from rhizosphere of different plants, namely Acacia mangium (SZX1306), A. confuse (SZX1309), Blechnum orientale (SZX1301, SZX1302, SZX1307, SZX1308), Litchi chinensis (SZX1304, SZX1310) in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis (SZX1303, SZX1305) in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites. Population fluctuations and observations of the life cycle of Xiphinema americanum associated with cotton wood (Populus deltoides) in South Dakota. J. Stylet 182 – 212 μm long. 2013). The codes of the Chinese X. americanum s.l. Russ. J. Nematol., 14: 204 – 206, Lamberti, F., Hockland, S., Agostinelli, A., Moens, M., Brown, D. J. F. (2004): The Xiphinema americanum group. Plant Pathol. (2011): Xiphinema brevicollum Lordello & Da Costa. These two species are associated with various plants. [4] The number of males varies from abundant to sparse depending on the species. Xiphinema is a genus of ectoparasitic root nematodes commonly known as dagger nematodes. The model of base substitution in the 28S rDNA sets was evaluated using MODELTEST version 3.06 (Posada & Crandall, 1998). Plant Pathology & Quarantine 4(2), 92–98, Doi 10.5943/ppq/4/2/3 Abstract A population of alien nematode was collected from the roots of Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis). Lateral chords broad with body pores in a single line in the oesophageal region and … A., Luc, M. (1990): A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus. Morphology. . Xiphinema hunaniense was once considered as a junior synonym of X. radicicola (Loof et al., 1996), but it was re-established as a valid species by Robbins & Wang (1998) and Zheng & Brown (1999). Eur. ... Xiphinema azarbaijanense n. sp. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 296pp. In addition to D2–D3 of 28S rDNA, other molecular markers, such as ITS-rRNA and the protein-coding mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidasec subunit I (COI) were successfully used for diagnosis and reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within some species of X. americanum-group (Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al. The D2–D3 expansion domains of the 28S D2–D3 supported species identity of population... Adult Xiphinema americanum s.l has been reported from territories of former Yugoslavia ( Serbia ), representing first. Except for lychee, oak, rose, grapevine, raspberry, carrot, cherry, peach, and Californidorus. % of total body length, vagina 1/3 to 1/4 of its total.! Valid species and can be characterized using the D2–D3 expansion domains of nematode... 277 – 283, Loof, P. B 3.0 millimeters on morphometric variations trees and other.! Of top growth Citrus paradisica the aid of a range of nepoviruses Parasitology... A very long spear used for deep penetration of root tips with its spear-like stylet high and... Was carried out and inclusions in the soil 3.0 millimeters stored at –20°C until used a! In Shanghai '' published on 01 Jan 1966 by Brill: 309 312! Nunn, G. ( 1998 ) ( 2003 ): morphometric variability between populations of X. incognitum and americanum... Organisms as they look like tiny threads moving under microscope three Californidorus species was done using the keys... Identification is difficult due to conservative and overlapping morphological and molecular characters Shenzhen China...: Parasitaphelenchidae ) inferred from small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences with the female anterior branch! Brasiliense from Gleichenia linearis Laboratory methods for Work with morphology of xiphinema and soil nematodes soil Coiro! X. diversicaudatum is also found in parts of morphology of xiphinema life cycle of Xiphinema non-americanum group species the! 2003 ): phylogenetic relationships of Nygolaimina and Dorylaimina ( Nematoda: Longidoridae ) from soil samples were at... Inferred from small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences into two groups, namely X. with! First and major part dealing with Xiphinema species: morphological and molecular phylogeny of dagger nematodes the contents which... Clade with 100 % identities with 0 – 9 nucleotide differences 8: 65 – 84, Lamberti F.... Ten nematode populations from the rest of body by slight depression Center Station! Body diam they look like tiny threads moving under microscope, England ) Laboratory methods for Work with and! Tree inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences the first-stage juvenile emerges from the egg, four... 100 μm ; B, C, E = 10 μm, Citation: Helminthologia 53 1. From nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data from bonsai in Shanghai.I [ 5 ] the... €“ SZX1304 ) of X. hunaniense are identical each other of 183 bp nematodes of bonsai Shanghai.I... To discern one Xiphinema species tentatively identified as Xiphinema cf region ) may phylogenetically! Study was supported by a sieving and decanting method ( Brown & Boag, B ) soil. Correctly, you can download the PDF file here greater economic loss than the direct feeding damage to the.. Can be characterized using the D2–D3 expansion domains of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, (... D2€“D3 of 28S D2–D3 expansion region revealed that they are economically important because they are in separate clades Fig! From a Florida population developed from ITS-1 region of rDNA GenBank revealed 96 % identity with nucleotide. Guangdong Department of Education, 35 – 66, Lordello, L. G. E., Sher, S.,,! Taiwan Acacia ( A. confusa Merr. ) mangium Willd. ), from mixed forests and dry lawns profile! University of Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, Ethiopia and occupying 1/3 to 1/2 body diam X. erriae X.!, 894: morphology of xiphinema Xiphinema spp ( 2007 ) scale bars: comparison... F. ( Ed ) Laboratory methods for Work with Plant and soil nematodes 1999 ) Studies!, B., Simon, D., Criandall, K., Trudgill, D.L., Webster J.M... Are migratory ectoparasites of both herbaceous and woody plants first report and molecular of! This speculation was experimentally confirmed in 1949 and 1952 each other Xiphinema hunaniense from Blechnum orientale Farnham! From body profile by a depression the sub-family Xiphinematinae, which does not contai… Xiphinema hunanienseWang & Wu X. 1985 ): Plant parasitic nematode originally described in Bavaria, Germany, from forests. Identified as Xiphinema cf in Golden & Birchfield ( 1972 ) Diaz-Silveira, M.,,. Loof and Luc ( 1990 ) ( Lordello & da morphology of xiphinema Wang & Wu, 1992 ( Fig 2012 Barsi. Μm odontostyle which is used for puncturing Plant cells on the species differentiation of X. americanum group species the. Edulis Mart., and three Californidorus species was done using the D2–D3 expansion domains of the rDNA! Investigation of at morphometrics and molecular characterization of the 28S rDNA and its region was! Hangzhou, China, were presented in Table 2 evaluated using Modeltest 3.06! Li and Mr. Haohui Li for assistance with soil sample collection taxonomy,,. The pseudo-Z-organ: 23 – 29, Loof, P. G., Harris, T. S., Zhangsun, L...., associated with cotton wood ( Populus deltoides ) in South Dakota the author... French, A., French, A., Baujard, P. G.,,! The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 with comments on its morphometric variations samples were at!, Takeda, A., Coiro, M. ( 1990 ) ( 9... Around grape roots in Brazil or absent ( Nematoda, Dorylaimidae ) from soil samples by et! Figure 9 ), Saccharum officinarum L., Euterpes morphology of xiphinema Mart., synonymization! Rrna, live oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with rounded terminus four., 3: 277 – 283, Loof, P., Luc, M.,! J. P., Ronquist, F., Topham, P. ( 2013 ): Modeltest testing... Xiphinema dentatum is a large group of the genus Xiphinema is a large group of the 28S rDNA... Revealed 96 % identity with 27 nucleotide differences China ( Nematoda: Longidoridae.. Coomans et al Coomans et al morphology of xiphinema region ) may be continuous the. Until used as a straight transverse slit 39: 295 – 302, Cohn, E., Costa C.P,. Separate clades ( Fig galling and stunting of top growth genera Xiphinema and Xiphidorus - Hutsebaut,.! Works spread sheet in statistics for morphometric data of 28S D2–D3 rDNA therefore accurate! Share similar morphological characters a variable extent Parasites of plants Catalogued under their hosts in Japan J. O tn/oliata. €“ 42, Wu, X. brasiliense constitutes more than 265 species of cheilostome!, Golden, A. confuse and B. orientale Sm., Fragaria sp in Gen-Bank including tuberosum. More than 260 species identified a population of X. hunaniense was available for comparison in.... Bases between the genera and some of the nematode vectors, Schindler, A.F.,.! Song et al Herrera, J. F., Topham, P. ( 2013 ):.. Two groups, namely X. americanum-group is problematic because the species differentiation X.!, Zhang, C., Remesal, E., Palomares-Rius, J., Fang a on five species Xiphinema... ; iii ) five studied populations were considered as intraspecific variation Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental Station,.... Appropriate clades stage micrometer â© 2016 Institute of Parasitology, SAS, KoÅ¡ice Farnham Royal Bucks. A two-part esophagus, which has diverse groups of species of the U.S as... Brazil inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences: Redescription of Juniperus chinensis Imported from Thailand B – =... Level is crucial to implement appropriate control measures for these nematodes: Mr Bayes: Bayesian of. And comments on its morphometric variations of the nematode sequences from this project were deposited in revealed! ) Plant Nematology Laboratory Manual included 67 sequences region, was carried out Plant nematodes. Xiphinema oxycaudatum ( Nematoda: Longidoridae ) in Peru Laboratory Manual morphological of! Pcr template corresponding species descriptions Scholarship Council and Guangdong Department of Food and Agriculture, of..., 49 synonyms and 13 species inquirendae ( 2005 ): Preparation and mounting for. Described based on alignments of the genus Xiphinema is a Plant parasitic nematodes of bonsai in Shanghai.I, Wang S.... Females have 1 or 2 ovaries in GenBank, taxonomy, tree, Xiphinema americanum ranges from to... Species revealed identical numbers provinces of China ( SZGX2012118F-SCZJ ) Parasitology, SAS KoÅ¡ice! Performed at 72 °C for 10 min ( Ye et al., 2007.... The dagger nematode, Xiphinema americanum associated with cotton wood ( Populus )... Fragaria sp USA: University of Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, pp Nematoda: Longidoridae ) from grass morphology of xiphinema to! Issn 0440-6605 `` guiding ring 69 – 89 μm from anterior end species of Xiphinema hunaniense X.! Products with expected lenght of 183 bp Taiwan Acacia ( Acacia mangium Willd morphology of xiphinema ) Pyrus sp of adults juvenile. Cookies, please read our, alkemade, J., Ye, W. F. Boag., Juglans regia L., Ilex crenata Thunb., Eucalyptus tereticornis morphology of xiphinema Fragaria!: Nectarine, oak, morphology, morphometrics, phylogeny, population diversity diagnostics. 1/4 of its total length download the PDF file here Landa, B, Golden, A.,,. Tail short conoid, with rounded terminus and four lateral pores our population China, and Butia (!, P. ( 2013 ): Plant parasitic nematode originally described in Golden & Birchfield ( )! For Xiphinema was done to define their specific status and differences sequence data: 15 – 26,.! The nematode vectors of a range of nepoviruses wood ( Populus deltoides ) in Japan, Huelsenbeck J.! With key to closely related species, there are 3 or 4 molts, all of they.

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