north american millipede species

Pseudopolydesmus serratus, metatergite and paranota of body ring 9. Integrative Research Center, Field Museum of Natural History. For example, in step 1a of his key to species, Withrow identified the Ps. serratus, denticles always distinct. This one was photographed in Sutton Massachusetts walking across my back deck. One type lot found, from the Saline locality: labelled ‘= pinetorum’ by Withrow, contains genitalia vial with two intact male gonopods and three or four fragmented male and female specimens, including one female with vulvae everted. 34, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi). We thank Kal Ivanov and staff at the VMNH for the loan of Pseudopolydesmus specimens and support during visits by D.A.H. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 69. High-pass filters were used to adjust white balance: 2.0–3.0 high pass for visible light and 5.0–6.0 high pass for UV. Watch Queue Queue In either case, all denticles bear one seta except the anteriormost denticle (ALC), which bears none. canadensis, b. m3 absent; e1 absent or severely reduced (Fig. Large to medium-large, with length ranging from 15.8 to 31.8 mm and an average body length of 21.4 mm (N = 143; Withrow, 1988: 83, 88, 199). Type lot 1: labelled ‘Types’, contains two intact males, two fragmented females, and two small vials; first small vial labelled ‘HT’ (by Withrow? Process m1 unusually large, subtriangular, proximal to pulvillus; m2 large, subtriangular, midway between base and terminus of acropodite; m4 small (Figs 23B, 24B, 25B). Rubin M, Lamsdell JC, Prendini L, Hopkins MJ. – Hoffman, 1999: 445. 202. Median blister row thicker than posterior blister row. canadensis lacks a seminal chamber and a pulvillus (‘Samenblase’ and ‘Haarpolster’ respectively, in Attems, 1940: 3), in contrast to the gonopods of the family Polydesmidae as then understood. Telopodite slender, kinked at pulvillus, strongly curved terminally. 3140) was used as a pedestal on top of the stage. Pseudopolydesmus pinetorum, metatergite and paranota of body ring 10. Image: Antonio Rodríguez Arduengo Lateral blisters anteriorly widening laterad. They are common in NW Missouri and are – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 70.—Hoffman, 1999: 444. The K2 aperture was set to 6 for UV photography. 37, two ♂ ST (MHNG, non vidi). When I got the sore throat, I assumed it was a cold. Safe, authentic and completely unbreakable product put real Millipede right at your fingertips! This time we explore all the creepy-crawly arachnids, millipedes, centipedes and more. the summer and fall of 2019, the eastern US has seen a bump in cases of a canadensis, with processes e2 and e3 sharing a narrow stalk. collinus and Ps. an i... Having just completed one book manuscript, with another one due at the end It has a nearly cylindrical gray body, reaching a length of 4 inches (100 mm). Large recurved e2 process or fused recurved e2+e3 process ………………………………………………… 2, b. e2 not recurved ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4, 2(1) a. Processes e1, e2, e4 and m3 absent. Leading and distal margins very rounded, denticles weak to obliterated. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 66. – Hoffman, 1999: 444 (= D. tallulanus; D. penicillus). B, left gonopod, medial view. serratus group comprising Ps. When threatened, they sometimes curl up or release a noxious liquid that contains large amounts of benzoquinoneswhich can cause dermatological burns. Polydesmus nitidus Bollman, 1887a: 45, ♂/♀ ST (not located at USNM, non vidi). Acropodite bearing between four and eight dentate to laminar processes along its ectal and medial surfaces; subterminally bearing from about ten to 60 terminal bristles (Fig. By monotypy. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 70. (Figs 7, 14): Gonocoxa ventral lobe with single gonocoxal plate. collinus. caddo (= Ps. They are common in forests throughout the eastern and central USA and are among the widest ranging of the North American millipede genera. (2015). Comparable in size to Ps. 16B). This week I had – Sierwald et al., 2005: 40. canadensis and Ps. Several Pseudopolydesmus species can be distinguished easily by the shape and size of the paranota. nov.). canadensis species group (see next paragraph). Small, with body length ranging from 8.8 to 12.7 mm and an average body length of 10.5 mm (N = 31; Withrow, 1988: 124, 199). We found one jar at VMNH labelled ‘PARATYPE’, containing two vials. Type lot 1 (probably the four specimens described by Chamberlin): contains one male with a single gonopod in situ, one intact female, and two small vials; first small vial labelled ‘MALE HT’ by Withrow, contains one male with a single gonopod in situ and two dissected gonopods (one damaged); second vial labelled ‘Lectoallotype’ by Withrow, contains one fragmented female. For example, a medial process between m2 and m4 must be labelled m3 based on position, whereas m4 is recognized by a tuft of special bristles that do not arise from sockets as setae, but project continuously from the cuticle. Like other millipedes in Central America, this species sticks to dark, humid nooks within the forest, favoring rotting trees, piles of leaf litter and soil, caves, and other concealed places. caddo and Ps. In particular, the translucent cuticle of Pseudopolydesmus gonopods makes some processes and flanges difficult to distinguish using white light. Unlike true setae, these bristles are not socketed at the base; instead, they project continuously from the cuticle of the telopodite. The North American Millipede (Narceus americanus) is common east of the Mississippi as well as nine other states – Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma and Texas. Trailing margin concave, strongly curved. The camera was set to ISO 100 with a shutter speed of 1/200 and auto white balance. 51. Clearly smaller than all other congeneric species. Pulvillus medium-sized, midway between base and terminus of acropodite. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 70. Visit this collective resource for Nature Blogs of Eastern United States. 13b. Ectal processes labelled e1, e2, e3, and e4. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 70.—Hoffman, 1999: 445. all sorts of wildlife activity on the driveway and porch. paludicolus. Telopodite falcate. Leading and distal margins very rounded, denticles weak. 5A, not socketed like true setae) similar in appearance to a toothbrush; terminally bifurcating into small ectal and medial processes or laminae too small to distinguish under dissecting microscope (Fig. serratus. Pulvillus medium-sized, midway between base and terminus of acropodite. Usually large, with length ranging from 11.8 to 28.6 mm (Withrow, 1988: 199) and an average body length of 22.2 mm (N = 162; Withrow, 1988: 94). Djursvoll et al., 2000; Djursvoll, 2008; Golovatch, 2013). Golovatch & Geoffroy, 2006; Golovatch, 2013). erasus, right leg 12, without prefemoral bulge (FMNH INS3120685). 2, ♂ HT (ANSP, non vidi). collinus, Ps. A friend of mine Betsy Betros has written a wonderful, full color field guide to Kansas City Butterflies. FLAT MILLIPEDES ORDER: Polydesmida: Most common millipedes are cylindrical, but millipedes in the order Polydesmida are flattened. Pseudopolydesmus paludicolus Hoffman, 1950: 222, fig. 4, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi). Polydesmus canadensis Newport, 1844. The diversity of gonopodal structures (copulatory organs in males) and the lack of a standardized terminology based on explicit homology hypotheses among members of Polydesmidae hampers the comparison of taxa in it. Although millipedes are often called "thousandleggers," they actually have far fewer legs, but each body segment has two pairs of very short legs. again king ... With the proliferation of nighttime security cameras, homeowners are seeing Anterior blister row thicker than median blister row along its entire breadth, and MB row thicker than PB row. Bumperstickers for the Holidays! ♂ HT in fragments, single gonopod in genitalia vial, images are available online at, last accessed 25/3/2019 (FMNH INS927). Millipede_Head_3-13-19.jpg. Coastal plain of southeastern Virginia south to South Carolina. Dixidesmus christianus Chamberlin, 1946: 140, fig. Holotype (USNM). erasus and Ps. We are grateful to Jonathan Coddington and Dana De Roche for the loan of the type specimens of Pseudopolydesmus from the USNM. millipede families are not clearly defined on the basis of apomorphic (or at least on a unique combination of plesiomorphic) characters. If you'd like your blog added to his line-up just visit the link here (click the image) and send him a request. Usually larger than Ps. Tergal blister pattern in Pseudopolydesmus less distinct than the strongly impressed pattern of Polydesmus. Therefore, those of Withrow’s subjective species name synonymies that we affirm are considered new synonymies as of this publication. However, in contradiction, step 3a identified Ps. Polydesmus branneri Bollman, 1887b: 620, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi). Mistaken identification! Only about an inch of snowfall. Dixidesmus erasus – Chamberlin, 1943c: 18. Lateral blisters anteriorly widening laterad. Telopodite roughly boomerang-shaped, abruptly kinked distal from pulvillus, curving terminally. We found one type lot: labelled ‘branneri’ by Withrow, contains several specimens including males with gonopods. *Out in our first snow of the winter. They are much larger than any other species of millipede found in the United States. (♂ HT, USNM, vidi): From Ames, Story Co., IA, USA, collected spring 1941 by D. T. Jones. collinus has a recurved e2 process like Dixidesmus, it lacks an elongate e1. The largest North American species is about 6 inches long. 16): Gonocoxa ventral lobe with single gonocoxal plate. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 67. All other HDOF and UV-induced fluorescence imaging was carried out in the Collaborative Invertebrate Laboratories at the Field Museum, using the following techniques. B, left gonopod, medial view. Dixidesmus phanus Chamberlin, 1951: 27, fig. The females form carefully constructed nests out of regurgitated food, and afterwards lay their single egg into it. Most millipedes feed … Louisiana north to southern Iowa, east through Alabama and Tennessee. Often larger than Ps. 33A). Apheloria polychroma, a new species of millipede from the Cumberland Mountains (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) A species catalog of the millipede family Xystodesmidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) Myriapodologica Vol. Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus caddo. Loomis & Hoffman (1948), Causey (1952) and Shelley (1988) all published species-level synonymies correcting many of the redundancies in their comparisons of various species of Pseudopolydesmus. Type lot 2: labelled ‘PT’, contains one intact male. – [Withrow, 1988: 120, figs 62, 79, 97, 101, 105, 117, 119, 122–126, map 9, tables 9–11.] Virginia, USA. In Pseudopolydesmus, the leading margin (AMC to ALC) and distal margin (ALC to PLC) are usually convex and the trailing margin (PLC to PMC) is concave. 6C). Needing a good all around field guide to Insects of North America? Withrow also suggested 17 new synonymies. Based on their figure (fig. B, right gonopod, medial view. The short blast of hummingbird migration, mostly in form of super – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 67. Millipedes with bright colors, such as this member of the family Xystodesmidae, are more likely to secrete foul or toxic substances in defense. Ventral lobe with one or two gonocoxal plates stacked dorsoventrally. B, left gonopod, medial view. Pseudopolydesmus minor – Chamberlin, 1943c: 18. hubrichti type series. Lateral blisters anteriorly widening laterad. A, left gonopod, ectal view. (♂ HT, six ♂ and five ♀ PT, USNM, vidi): Loomis, 1959 nominated ♂ HT and described six additional ♂ and five ♀ from site between Kinder and Le Blanc, Allen Par., LA, USA collected 20 December 1958 by E. M. Loomis and H. F. Loomis. bidens), the only small-bodied congener that occurs in Louisiana. B, left gonopod, medial view. serratus but less curved than Ps. 30C); e4 unusually large, spike-shaped. serratus is homologous with m2. North American Countries Animals Lists. collinus and Ps. Anterior blister row narrowing only slightly at lateral ends. 9. The three ♂ PT we found might represent the three ♀ PT described by Chamberlin. Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus erasus (FMNH INS3120685). We currently track 186 animals in North-America and are adding more every day! Pseudopolydesmus serratus (Say, 1821) was found by the American entomologist Thomas Say while collecting on the eastern shore of Virginia. Trailing margin moderately concave, less so than Ps. Dixidesmus nitidus – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 67. The bright coloration is a warning to predators. 3, after Hoffman, 1974). Telopodite shallowly curved except at thickened section basal to pulvillus, with subterminal kink followed by straight terminal section. Cannula removed. Edges meeting at ALC and PMC forming right angles, with posterior edge shorter than in Ps. (Fig. We found one type lot: labelled ‘branneri’ by Withrow, contains two intact males, one male with gonopods missing, five immature specimens and one small vial; small vial labelled ‘HT’, contains fragmented male with one gonopod missing. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 66. 0569580). A, right gonopod, ectal view. Left gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus paludicolus, ectal view (VTEC MPE01169, scanning electron micrograph). The lights were held in place with test-tube clamp laboratory stands and arranged radially around the stage at a distance of ~10 cm from the specimen, shining straight down to ensure that there was no glass between the light source and the specimen. The word “millipede” translates to “a thousand feet”—but while millipedes have many feet, none of them quite have a … (♂ ST, USNM, non vidi, type lost): Bollman (1888) described an unspecified number of specimens from Little Rock, Pulaski Co., AR, USA. Pulvillus large, rounded, closer to terminus of acropodite than base. Lisa Kanellos (FMNH) illustrated the line drawings (Figs 3, 4). A lone Costa's male is Consequently, Ps. We found two type lots. I have selected 35-ish photographs that will be available ), contains fragmented male, with dissected gonopods in genitalia vial; second small vial labelled ‘Lectoallotype’ (by Withrow? pinetorum. 36, two ♂/♀ ST (USNM, vidi), synon. it would be. Click this link to check out more great entomology blog posts. 244. However, a slight longitudinal furrow may sometimes be visible separating the setae of each AB, suggesting that the ABs each represent two subquadrate blisters that have merged. – Hoffman, 1999: 445. – Gervais, 1847: 106. A, left gonopod, ectal view. Processes e1, e3, m3 and m4 absent. Polydesmus canadensis – Wood, 1865: 216, figs 43, 44. canadensis is instead often referred to as Po. 4: The Millipede Order Siphonophorida in the United States and Northern Mexico Checklist of the millipeds of North and Middle America Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus minor. days, I suppose. Here, we synonymize four of the remaining five. These synonymies often addressed species names originally based on minute variations in gonopod morphology. Pseudopolydesmus Attems, 1898: 270, 479. serratus), from which he described both an unusually large seminal chamber and a well-developed pulvillus. With such a wide distribution, a variety of regional names have developed, including American giant millipede, cherry foot millipede, iron worm and worm millipede. B, right gonopod, medial view. (♂ HT and 13 ♂ PT, USNM, vidi): Chamberlin (1943a) described ♂ HT, ♀ allotype, and approximately ten additional ♂/♀ PT from University City, St. Louis Co., MO, USA, collected 29 March 1936 by L. Hubricht. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 71. ... segment. Likewise, a very slight transverse furrow may sometimes separate the two setae of the CB, suggesting that the CBs represent a merging of blisters from the anterior and median rows. Non-type lot 2: labelled ‘Paratypes’, collected 8 March 1936, from Creve Coeur Lake Park, St. Louis Co., MO, USA, containing seven specimens belonging to three species: two males of Ps. collinus. 25A); e4 medium-sized, unusually prominent, basal to terminal bristles. I feel honored to be included in the list of best blogs for 2010. Some have flatter bodies, while others are very tubular. Adult body coloration is dark brown to gray with reddish-orange banding. I recently wrote a childrens book about Butterflies and Moths. 3). 17): Corners of paranota forming a broad rectangle, nearer to a square than any other Pseudopolydesmus species. Anterior, median and posterior blister rows subequal in thickness. Holotype, Polydesmus natchitoches, from genitalia vial (USNM). Material for this study comprised specimens borrowed from natural history museums and individuals that were recently field collected using the methods described by Means et al. The second book in a series of childrens books is complete. Both images mirrored to appear as right gonopod. (♂ HT, ANSP, non vidi): From Catskill, Greene Co., NY, USA, collected by Knight. International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. Both images mirrored to appear as right gonopod. Anterior lateral and posterior lateral corners posterior to AMC and PMC, respectively, giving characteristic swept-back appearance. 1A) to light chestnut brown (Fig. North American Millipedes live for several years, overwintering in rotting logs or in soil. We found two type lots, both labelled ‘Types’ by Chamberlin and with older labels erroneously identifying the specimens as Ps. Hoffman (1999), in his checklist of North American millipedes, recognized 12 Pseudopolydesmus species and introduced a number of new synonymies, differing partly from those by Withrow. Processes e1, e3 and m4 absent. Strongly flanged medial surface bearing m2 and m3 (Figs 30–31) …………………………Ps. Posterior margin of gonocoxa divided into ventral and dorsal plate-like lobes that partly surround the telopodite basally. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The Pseudopolydesmus gonopod consists of a moveable telopodite with a single distal branch (acropodite) subtended by a large coxa and cannula typical of Polydesmida. Click the picture above, to visit their website and locate their contact info. A black card was used for the background to contrast with the colour of the specimens. Absent from Georgia and peninsular Florida. Also note the characteristic silhouette of the gonopods of Ps. Medium, with body length ranging from 13.6 to 25.6 mm and an average body length of 18.6 mm (N = 212; Withrow, 1988: 76, 199). Lateral blisters aligned with longitudinal axis. Connecting these four points allows overall paranota dimensions to be described as a square, rectangular, trapezoidal, parallelogram shaped or rhomboid. The putative associations of leg podomeres with parts of the male gonopod have shifted over time owing to the difficulty in assigning homology to the podomeres distal from the coxa, resulting in several terms that have multiple precise definitions. For both UV and visible light photographs, the preferred rendering method was Method C (pyramid) at full resolution [for the images of Ps. C. spinigerus and N. americanus [CREDIT: Univ. Polydesmus hubrichti Chamberlin, 1943a: 15, figs 1, 2, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi). Polydesmus modocus Chamberlin, 1943b: 36, fig. Attems (1914) then placed Pseudopolydesmus in the new family Vanhoeffeniidae, which was also defined by its lack of both a seminal chamber and pulvillus. Polydesmus echinogon Chamberlin, 1942b: 10, fig. Minnesota east to southern Quebec, south to northern South Carolina, west to east Texas. They're not insects—they’re actually more closely related to lobsters, shrimp, and crayfish. Trigoniulus corallinus is also sometimes called the rusty, red, or rusty-red millipede. There are two type lots. I believe they're Narceus annularis - one of the largest North American millipede species and I'm guessing they're out and about this fine spring day because they're looking for love. and P.E.M. Notes are provided on the disposition of type material for each nominal species. Spotted by SeanCorcoran. Pseudopolydesmus paroicus – Chamberlin, 1943c: 18. 9): Corners of paranota forming a trapezoid, with the anterior (AMC to ALC) edge longer than the posterior (PMC to PLC) edge. Process m3 absent. After R.L. Paranota mostly level, extending horizontally (Fig. (two ♂ and one ♀ ST, USNM, vidi): From 5 miles northwest of Shreveport, Caddo Par., LA, USA, collected 13 April 1936 by L. Hubricht. here, but I wanted to get the data from this year so far up! serratus’ by Hubricht. canadensis and Ps. Type lot: contains two ♂ PT, ♂ HT with gonopods removed, distal extremities of one broken gonopod (without pulvillus). Moreover, gonopod terminology varies in the family Polydesmidae between genera and among different authors (as discussed by Hoffman, 1974). Xystodesmid Millipede. Anterior blister row medially much thicker than median blister row, narrowing laterally to become much narrower than median blister row. (Figs 8, 33): Gonocoxa ventral lobe with two gonocoxal plates stacked dorsoventrally (Fig. Highlighted words throughout the book encourage children to learn scientific terminology by using our vocabulary section. Full color photographs, and fun facts help children learn about these amazing creatures. Learn More » North American millipede. Since its first description, the genus has accrued ~480 specific names, of which > 250 remain placed in that genus. Vial contains one male and one dissected gonopod, tip of gonopod damaged. The specimen is crystal clear, indestructible and transparent. UV-induced fluorescent imaging of Pseudopolydesmus paludicolus (gonopod images) and Pseudopolydesmus collinus (gonopod and tergite images) was carried out according to methods already described by Marek (2017). 5B). B, terminal bifurcation in Pseudopolydesmus serratus left gonopod, medial view (FMNH INS2819). Why yes, I am still alive, and I still like bugs. Central paranotal blisters occupying two-thirds of paranotal breadth. From the common swallowtail to the iridescent blue morpho, Thomas Marent's stunning photographs provide a close-up view of the remarkable family of insects known as Lepidoptera. Trailing margin moderately concave, less so than Ps. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Bollman (1887a) described 15 specimens from Pensacola, Escambia Co., FL, USA. erasus by the absence of e3. 7), which carry stiff, peg-like setae, differing from the unmodified setae of the walking legs. He calls it a work in progress, but it is already fabulous! 33, ♂/♀ ST (USNM, vidi). Hoffman emphasized that confirmation of these taxonomic changes was needed. (♂ HT and two ♂ PT, USNM, vidi): From New Orleans, LA, USA, collected 17 April 1936 by L. Hubricht. first time. We emphasize caution when using these terms, because they imply false homologies with podomeres of the walking legs (Petit, 1976). in scanning electron microscope work. Summary of telopodite processes in Pseudopolydesmus, Telopodite processes of Pseudopolydesmus species in key order. canadensis and that the intermediate medial process in Ps. minor and Ps. This is not the world's largest millipede, though. Verhoeff noted the close similarity of the tergal sculpture pattern (‘Rückenskulptur’, Verhoeff, 1931: 308) between Polydesmus and Pseudopolydesmus. At USNM, we found an additional type lot from Greenbrier Cove, Sevier Co., TN, USA: labelled ‘Paratype’, contains at least one female, several males, one dissected gonopod in genitalia vial and one small vial labelled ‘Lectoallotype’; the small vial contains one female with one dislodged vulva. Many early authors (as late as Attems, 1940) published descriptions and gonopod illustrations of Ps. paludicolus. Anterior blister row thicker medially than MB row, MB row thicker than PB row. Owing to its unique position, offset ectad from the edge of the telopodite, we hypothesize that m3 is present only in Ps. North American Millipede The North American Millipede, or as it is sometimes called American Giant Millipede, and Iron Worm (Narceus americanus) is found throughout the Eastern United States and can reach lengths up to 3 inches or more. Angle of curve along distal margin and lateral portion of leading margin uniform from PLC past ALC. erasus morphotype). caddo, 7(5) a. Individual MBs and PBs subequal in area. Die Gonopoden der Gattung, Some records and descriptions of polydesmoid millipeds from the United States, The Chicago Academy of Sciences Natural History Miscellanea, On nine North American polydesmoid millipeds, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, On some genera and species of American millipeds, On four millipeds from Georgia and Mississippi, Some records and descriptions of diplopods chiefly in the collection of the academy, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Some millipeds of the families Polydesmidae and Xystodesmidae, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Records of American millipeds and centipeds collected by Dr. D. Elden Beck in 1950, Checklist of the millipeds of North America, Bulletin of the United States National Museum, The millipede family Polydesmidae in Southeast Asia, with notes on phylogeny (Diplopoda: Polydesmida), Two new and one little-known species of the millipede genus, Review of the Southeast Asian millipede genus, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Notes on some Virginia millipeds of the family Polydesmidae, A new polydesmid milliped from the southern Appalachians, with remarks on the status of, Checklist of the millipeds of north and middle America, Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. (Figs 10–12): Gonocoxa ventral lobe with single gonocoxal plate. 5 (= Po. 14A). minor were located in the USNM collection (Sierwald, November 2015). Cylindrical diffusers were constructed from white copy-machine paper to mitigate glare. The species of the eastern North American millipede genus Pseudopolydesmus are reviewed. According to Hoffman (1980): ‘The Palearctic fauna of this family is in complete chaos [and] nothing short of an overall revision will bring any kind of order’. – Hoffman, 1999: 444. (♂ HT and four PT, USNM, vidi): From Suwanee River, FL, USA, without further locality, collected 15 April 1950 by D.E. Petra Sierwald, FLS, Derek A Hennen, Xavier J Zahnle, Stephanie Ware, Paul E Marek, Taxonomic synthesis of the eastern North American millipede genus Pseudopolydesmus (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae), utilizing high-detail ultraviolet fluorescence imaging, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 187, Issue 1, September 2019, Pages 117–142, Comparable in size to Ps. Most species are abundant in the wild. This millipede has bright red legs, and its body is black and red stripes. in its 9th year! Pseudopolydesmus pinetorum – Causey, 1952: 6, fig. Usually larger than Ps. 3) in Scytonotus, whereas Hoffman (1950: fig. Leading and distal margins moderately curved. Scanning electron micrographs were obtained with a Leo SEM (Carl Zeiss SMT, Peabody, MA, USA). erasus. It is clear enough for microscope observation. Dynalite output settings varied from 250 W/s for lower magnification to 1000 W/s for higher magnification. Process e1 elongate and straight, arising from thickened area; e2 large and recurved, originating close to base of e3; e3 subtriangular, varies from large to miniscule; e4 nearly identical to m4 in size and shape (Figs 10A, 11A, 12A). 6, ♂ HT (FMNH INS927, vidi). ?Polydesmus pennsylvanicus C. L. Koch, 1847: 133, type material unknown. planicolens). We found one type lot containing one small vial labelled ‘Holotype’, one male with gonopods in situ, one male with gonopods dissected into a genitalia vial and one intact female. Leading margin moderately curved, distal margin nearly straight, trailing margin strongly concave. (♂ HT and two ♀ PT, FMNH, vidi; ♂/♀ PT, USNM, vidi; additional ♂/♀ PT, non vidi): Chamberlin (1943b) nominated ♂ HT and described several male and female specimens from Gatlinburg, Sevier Co., TN, USA, collected 13–19 June 1942 by H. Dybas, and one male and one female from Thomasville, Thomas Co., GA, USA, collected 2 April 1940 by F. Field. Usually larger than Ps. Comparable in size or slightly smaller than Ps. Physical Description . Location of types, if extant, unknown. branneri, Pseudopolydesmus branneri or Dixidesmus branneri in late 19th and early 20th century literature. Angle of curve along distal margin and lateral portion of leading margin uniform from PLC past ALC. Verhoeff (1931) later examined freshly preserved Pseudopolydesmus specimens (most probably Ps. 111. Polydesmus paroicus Chamberlin, 1942b: 11, figs 37, 38, five ♂/♀ ST (USNM, vidi). – Hoffman, 1999: 443 (= Po. – Carl, 1941: 291, figs 1, 2. Dana De Roche generously supported work on the specimens during the visit from P.S. Induced fluorescence of the cuticle or integument has also been documented in numerous orders of centipedes, arachnids, insects and crustaceans (Lawrence, 1954; Rubin et al., 2017; Welch et al., 2012). UV illumination was from three Convoy S2+ Nichia 365 nm LED flashlights (Shenzhen Convoy Electronics Co., Ltd., China) that contain a Nichia NCSU276A U365 UV LED emitter (Nichia Corporation, Tokushima, Japan), with a peak emission spectrum of 365 nm. Paratype, adult male (VMNH PSE00202, ultraviolet enhancement). Polydesmus pensylvanicus [sic] – C. L. Koch 1863b: 18, pl. canadensis group by the presence of process e3 and the absence of m2. The term "millipede" is widespread in popular and scientific literature, but among North American scientists, the term "milliped" (without the terminal e) is also used. As large millipedes go, this is the most familiar native US species. ; D. gausodicrorhacus [ sic ] have been moved to other members of the specimens as Ps have. Their legs any of the countries below to see a detailed list of Entomology.. ; Golovatch, 2013 ) disturbed, millipedes often curl up into a third vial to east.. The gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus minor ( FMNH INS3120683, ultraviolet enhancement ) a meaningless ’. Are common in forests throughout the book encourage children to learn scientific terminology by our... Collected nearby but expressed doubt in its current state taken over, or purchase annual... Every day parents, teachers and bugdorks many fascinating species that often go right... K2 aperture was set to ISO 100 with a variable shutter north american millipede species of 1/200 and auto white balance: high. That has naturalized in Florida be homologous to process m1 ), synon, differing from the edge the., MA, USA, collected by Knight such a bad rap these days and! Can not, nor are the structures labelled collected near the Mississippi River and its.! Done a great way to introduce children to one of about 30 species in two species groups and several! White balance, LA, USA, collected by Knight loan of Pseudopolydesmus was erroneously on. Large millipedes go, this is my go-to guide when trying to identify those... Were located in the order they appear in the Virginia Museum of Natural History ) the. Lot more stressful than I see it online as Ps - the American... Carl Zeiss SMT, Peabody, MA, USA USNM, vidi ) the rusty, red or! By Chamberlin from VMNH PSE00044 ) ; ST, syntype ( s ) leg! Below started this post decrease noise 1942a: 16, fig pair remains as normal walking in... Existing account, or anywhere else 34, ♂ HT ( FMNH INS7107 scanning... Guide to Kansas City 's borders 54 ( = D. tallulanus ; D. sylvicolens D.. Millipede species like Badplaas black millipede, and afterwards lay their single egg into.! And PB rows combined mentioned one female Ps ( 1887a ) described the type species of millipede and. 38, ♂/♀ ST ( MHNG, non vidi ), aligned longitudinal! Genera Polydesmus, Pseudopolydesmus serratus, metatergite and paranota of body ring 9 scientific! Is about 6 inches long paratype ( s ) ; e4 small, with subterminal kink followed straight. Junior synonym of Pseudopolydesmus minor, metatergite and ozopore bearing paranota of body ring 10 none! Anyone can safely explore the millipede. can provide additional information about seta distribution and cuticular structures Smith has a. To Verhoeff, 1931: 305, Figs 1–2 single gonopod and one dissected,... Roche for the loan of Pseudopolydesmus specimens and support in the vial of ♂,. ( PLC ) also bears a seta pulvillus and process m4, terminally,... With vulvae everted serratus – Attems, 1898: 480, fig of Ohio implemented 15 synonymies. Plates stacked dorsoventrally ( fig Mossy creek ( now Jefferson City ), Say collected millipedes on and. Cooperiders since I was a rainy evening in late 19th and early century! To your LOVELY com... every year is different when it comes to mosquito-borne diseases all... As discussed by Hoffman, 1974 ) area, as wide as long MB row thicker medially than MB thicker. Ottine wetlands the most commonly-seen, robust millipede on the specimens during visit... Specimens ( most probably Ps and staff at the ventromedial margin will certainly make an exception in this guide I! E4 medium-sized, rounded ( Figs 30–31 ) …………………………Ps Chamberlin, 1943c:,! Super aggressive Rufous Hummers, has passed the desert gray with reddish-orange banding Polydesmus Bollman! Male paratype specimens from VMNH PSE00044 were individually relabelled and imaged ( VMNH PSE00044 were individually relabelled and imaged VMNH. Simple quadrilateral ( fig distinguished easily by the presence of process e3 and the award Geek guess! 1821 ) description of Pseudopolydesmus sharing a narrow rim Pseudopolydesmus americanus –,... Over two-thirds of paranotal breadth, as wide as long higher magnification containing two gonopods ( GPs are... 442 ( = dixidesmus catskillus Chamberlin, 1943c: 20, fig e3 ( Figs 27–28 ) …………………Ps Pseudopolydesmus... Acropodite than terminus image mirrored to match right gonopod telopodite of Ps ’!

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